05-04b: Sensation Flashcards Preview

05 - Tests and Measurements > 05-04b: Sensation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05-04b: Sensation Deck (27):
1

Role of Sensation - What does it do?

- Guides selection of motor response for effective environmental interactions
- Sensory input --> Motor output

2

Dermatome

Skin segment innervated by one dorsal root

3

Attention

Selective awareness of environment or responsiveness to a stimulus or task without being distracted by other stimuli

4

Orientation

Awareness of person, place, time

5

Cognition

- The "process of knowing"
- Includes both awareness and judgment

6

Memory - Examining

- Short-Term: Difficulty following directions, Short list of words, recall list of 7 digits
- Long-Term: Recall date of wedding, where one went to school

7

Sensory Receptors (3)

- Superficial sensation, Deep sensation, Combined cortical sensation
- Tactile sensation

8

Superficial sensation (4)

- Pain, Temperature, Pressure, Light Touch
- Exteroceptors receive sensory stimuli from external environment from skin and subcutaneous tissue
- Dermatomes and peripheral nerve distribution

9

Deep sensation (3)

- Vibration, Proprioception, Kinesthesia
- Proprioceptors provide sensory input
- Stimuli from muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, fascia

10

Proprioception

- Position sense and awareness of joints at rest; after movement
- Pt identifies static position of an extremity, trunk or body part - tests deep sensation at that joint, not whole body

11

Kinesthesia

- Awareness of movement; tests during movement
- Pt identifies dynamic moving part of proprioception; identify direction and extent of movement of a joint or body part; small ROM

12

Combined cortical sensation

- Stereognosis, Graphesthesia, 2-point discrimination, Barognosis
- Requires both exteroceptors and proprioceptors as well as cortical sensory association areas
- Combination of superficial and deep sensation to form 1 sensation
- Requires interpretation from cortex; processed in parietal lobe

13

Stereognosis

Identify object by touch without looking at it

14

Graphesthesia

Ability to recognize numbers, letters, shapes "written" on the skin with finger trace

15

2-point discrimination

- Ability to perceive two points applied to the skin simultaneously
- Test with 2-point caliper

16

Barognosis

Ability to recognize the difference in the weight (lighter or heavier) of objects by feeling, not looking

17

Sensory impairment patterns

- Dermatome distribution: Nerve roots
- Peripheral nerve distribution: Includes entrapments
- "Glove and Stocking": Starts with whole foot/feet and spreads to whole hand(s); Associated with peripheral neuropathy, DM
- MS: More scattered distribution because of CNS pathology
- SCI: Nerve root distribution below level of injury

18

Sensation testing

- Superficial: Pain, Pressure, Light Touch, Temperature
- Deep: Vibration, Proprioception, Kinesthesia
- Cortical: Stereognosis, Barognosis, Graphesthesia, 2-point discrimination
- Also includes taste, smell, hearing, vision

19

Sensory data results

Categories: Absent, impaired, delayed, intact

20

Snellen Chart

- Tests vision
- Mounted on wall 20 feet away (the first "20"), then based in line they can correctly read comfortably

21

Peripheral field test

Finger moves toward center until it reaches field of vision

22

Light Touch Test

- Use light touch or stroke; do not indent skin
- Cotton ball or light pressure with finger

23

Pressure test

- Press enough to indent skin for pressure receptors
- Dull side of safety pin or finger

24

Pain test

- Sharp/dull discrimination
- Pin prick

25

Vibration test

- Vibration perception using tuning fork (Random vibration/no vibration)
- Bony prominence - Not dermatome, but specific identification in that bone/area

26

Age-related sensory changes

- Decline in tactile and vibratory sensation
- Decreased 2-point discrimination
- Decline in proprioception

27

Sensory integration techniques

- Reorganize processing of sensory integration
- Treat using compensatory approach - compensate for the loss