05-02c: Development of Systems Across the Lifespan Flashcards Preview

05 - Tests and Measurements > 05-02c: Development of Systems Across the Lifespan > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05-02c: Development of Systems Across the Lifespan Deck (30):
1

Lifespan Ages

- Newborn: Birth-1 month
- Infant: 1 month - 1 year
- Toddler: 1-2 years
- Child: 2-12 years
- Adolescent: 12-20 years
- Adult: 20-65 years
- Older Adult: 65+ years

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Skeletal Development - Newborn

Verterbral development begins in embryonic development

3

Skeletal Development - Infant/Child

- Epiphysis is active site for new bone formation
- Epiphyseal plate is very thin and susceptible to compressive and tensile forces (avulsion Fx, greenstick Fx)
- Ambulation: Curvature of sacrum increases, ilium thickens, acetabular depth increases
- Femur of tibia goes from genu varum to genu valgum by 3 years old

4

Skeletal Development - Adolescent

- Growth spurt girls: 12-13 yrs
- Growth spurt boys: 14-15 yrs
- Common stress Fx areas: Lumbar spine, tibia, fibula; Osgood Schlatters Disease (pain, inflammation, edema at tibial tuberosity - boys 10-15, girls 8-13)

5

Skeletal Development - Adult

- Max bone mass: 20-30 yrs
- Balanced until 35-40yrs
- Women lose 1% per year prior to menopause, 2-4% yearly after
- Men lose .5% per year
- Intervertebral disk loses water (Nucleus pulposus is mainly affected; Annulus fibrosus becomes more fibrotic)
- Higher incident of disk-related pain between 25-45 yrs

6

Skeletal Development - Older Adult

- Loss of bone mass leads to osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis
- Decreased activity further decreases bone mass

7

Muscular Development - Infant to Adult

- In utero: Increase in both muscle fibers and size of individual fibers
- After birth: Growth of muscles comes mainly from increase in size of individual fibers
- At birth: Primarily fast twitch; slow twitch kicks in at 1-2 yrs

8

Muscular Development - Older Adult

- Atrophy
- Directly related to activity of individual

9

Strength - Infancy to Adolescence

- Linear increase from 6-18 yrs
- Boys have greater strength due to hormones, surpass girls around age 16

10

Strength - Adulthood

- Maximum strength in males: 30-35 yrs
- Muscle mass declines after 45 yrs (1% per year)
- Older adults can maintain or even increase skeletal muscle mass and thus strength with resistance exercises (into 80s, 90s)

11

Cardiovascular - Prenatal

- Blood circulation begins at 3 weeks gestation
- Heart develops as recognizable structure between 20-50 days of gestation

12

Cardiovascular - Infancy and Childhood

- Newborn heart lis horizontal in chest cavity (as lungs expand and cavity grows, becomes more vertical)
- R/L ventricles are equally thick; as L ventricle begins pumping, wall size increases and becomes twice as thick by adulthood

13

Cardiovascular - Adolescence

- Amount of muscle in heart increases
- Increased BP; Decreased HR

14

Cardiovascular - Adulthood and Older Adult

- Heart size and weight continues to increase in adulthood due to fat deposit
- Valves thicken and calcify with aging
- Aging changes seen in coronary arteries at 20 yrs, rest of arterial system after 40 yrs

15

Heart Rates

- Newborn: 120-140 bpm
- 1 yo: 100 bpm
- 6 yo: 80 bpm
- 10 yo - Adult: 70 bpm

16

Blood Pressures (Systolic)

- Newborn: 40-75 mmHg
- 2 yo: 83-88 mmHg
- 5 yo: 95 mmHg

* Diastolic is between 50-55 mmHg

17

Pulmonary - Child

- Children under 5 yo have larger number of small airways; problems because 1) increase in airflow resistance = increase work at breathing, 2) easily obstructed by foreign onjects
- Alveoli and bronchioles are weaker and less efficient
- Smooth muscle in bronchioles does not develop until 3-4 yo

18

Pulmonary - Older Adult

- Thorax shortends vertically and larger in A<>P direction due to degeneration of disc height
- Lungs, alveoli, and alveolar ducts get larger
- Respiratory muscles become less efficient

19

Nervous - Infant and Child

- Critical brain growth occurs between 3-10 months and between 15-24 months
- Brain weight doubles by 6 months (early myelination = why newborns sleep most of the time)
- First 2 months after birth = CNS organization
- Social behavior begins at 2 months with social smile
- 24 hr biological clock established between 2-4 months (regards day and night)

20

Nervous - Child and Adolescent

- Brain growth spurts at 6-8 yo, 10-12 yo, 18 yo
- Develop functional skills such as throwing, jumping, catching, balancing at 3-6 yo
- Skills refined at 6-10 yo

21

Nervous - Adult

- Brain weight declines at 20 yo
- CNS changes with age, affects frontal/temporal lobes
- Memory declines at 30 yo

22

Nervous - Older adult

Loss of neuron size and aging = explanation for forgetfulness in older adults

23

Sensory - Infant and Early Childhood Touch

- First response to touch - diffuse (arms and legs move around randomly
- Rooting reflex until 3 months
- Touch localized at 7-9 months, can't tell where touched
- Specific localization demonstrated 12-16 months; toddler can identify place where touched and rub area or push stimulus away
- Doll eye phenomenon - newborn held in supine suspended and moved horizontally; eyes appear to go opposite direction of the body

24

Sensory - Infant and Early Childhood Vision

- Newborn vision is poor
- Lateral approach, unable to hold head in midline until 4 months
- Infant sees b/w until 4 months (full color present)
- Visual alignment 3-6 months, due to head control and ability to fix on objects

25

Sensory - Infant and Early Childhood Sound

- 1 month: Auditory system myelinated
- 3 months: head turns to locate sounds
- 4 months: Infant begins to babble in vocal play as they respond to new sounds
- 1 yo: words being pronounced

26

Sensory - Infant and Early Childhood Taste/Smell

- Functional at birth, connect to feeding reflexes
- 5 day old infant can orient to mother's breast pad based on odor

27

Sensory - Child and Adolescence

- 3 yo: Visual closure (ability to discern a shape when seeing only part of it)
- 5 yo: Visual pursuit (ability to track moving objects)
- 11 yo: Perceptual judgments based on size are matured
- 12 yo: Depth perception fully achieved

28

Sensory - Adults and older adults

- Dizziness and vertigo common after 50 yo
- Presbyopia: Diminished ability to focus clearly at normal reading distances
- Hearing declines due to loss of sensory cells in the inner ear

29

Exercise Training - Childhood

- Children don't respond well to CV training
- Children sweat less than adults, making it difficult to dissipate heat
- Don't focus only on strengthening and CV endurance, add coordination and balance exercises, functional exercises

30

Exercise Training - Older Adult

- Focus on low intensity strengthening
- Focus on functional tasks/ADLs, balance exercises, and gait training
- Include warm up and cool down