05-11: Posture Flashcards Preview

05 - Tests and Measurements > 05-11: Posture > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05-11: Posture Deck (18):

Why assess posture?

Postural faults can provide information about muscle balance with regard to muscle length and muscle strength


Purpose of curves of the spine

- Decreases risk of injury
- Absorbs shock


Neutral Pelvis Alignment

ASIS 8-10˚ higher than PSIS in transverse plane


Posterior Pelvic Tilt Alignment

ASIS higher than PSIS


Anterior Pelvic Tilt Alignment

ASIS lower than PSIS


Static posture

- Not moving
- Standing, sitting, lying down


Dynamic posture

- Moving
- Postural Sway


Tools to assess posture (2)

- Plumb line
- Postural grid


Anterior Assessment: Normal

- Head: Level and neutral
- Shoulders: Even, no elevation/depression
- Sternum: Plumb line through center
- Hips: ASIS even
- Legs: Normal BOS, feet shoulder width apart
- Knees: No genu valgum (knock knee) genu varus (bow leg)
- Ankles: Arches are normal
- Feet: Toeing out


Anterior Assessment: Abnormal

- Head: Tilting, rotation, uneven mandibles
- Shoulders: Elevation/depression
- Pelvis: Uneven ASIS, uneven iliac crests
- Hips: IR/ER, uneven greater trochanters
- Knees: Ext/Int tibial torsion, malaligned patella
- Ankles: Pes Planus (flat feet), Pes Cavus (high arch)
- Toes: Hallux valgus (great toe adducts), claw toe, hammer toe (flex of PIP), mallet toes (flex of DIP)


Posterior Assessment: Normal

- Head: Level and neutral
- Shoulders: Even, no elevation/depression
- SPs: Centered down the middle
- Hips: PSIS even
- Legs: Normal BOS, feet shoulder width apart
- Knees: No genu valgum or genu varus
- Ankles: Straight calcanei


Posterior Assessment: Abnormal

- Head: Tilt, rotation
- Shoulders: Elevation/depression
- Scapula: Protraction/ABD, Retraction/ADD, winging
- Thoracic: Scoliosis
- Lumbar: Lateral curvature
- Knees: genu valgum or genu varus
- Ankles: Pes planus, pes cavus


Lateral Assessment: Normal

- Head: Center of ear lobe (EAM)
- Shoulders: Acromion process
- Thoracic: Slightly anterior to vertebral bodies
- Lumbar: Bisect vertebral bodies
- Pelvis: Middle of iliac crest
- Hips: Through greater trochanter
- Knees: slightly posterior to patella of extended knee (anterior to midline of knee)
- Ankles: Slightly anterior to lateral malleolus


Lateral Assessment: Abnormal

- Head: FHP
- Cervical: Decreased/flattened curve; increased curve
- Shoulders: Rounded
- Thoracic: Kyphosis
- Lumbar: Decreased (posterior tilt) or increased curve (anterior tilt)
- Pelvis: Anterior tilt, posterior tilt
- Knees: flexed, genu recurvatum (excessive extension)
- Ankles: Longitudinal arch flattened/exaggerated


Kyphosis-Lordosis Posture

- Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis
- Scapula protracted
- Increase in lumbar lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt
- Hip flexion, knee hyperextension, plantar flexion
- Shortened: One-jt hip flexors, neck extensors, low back muscles
- Typical with vertebral compression fx


Sway back

- Forward head, exaggerated upper cervical ext/lower cervical flex
- Elongated thoracic spine, posterior displaced from plumb line
- Lumbar spine has increased lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt
- Elongation/weakness: Hamstrings, cervical flexors, upper back ext, ext oblique, one-jt hip flexors
- Shortened/strong: internal obliques, low back extensors


MIlitary posture

- Decrease in cervical lordosis
- Chest out, shoulders pulled back, decreased thoracic spine curve
- Increased lumbar lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt, hips glex, knee ext exaggeration (lock)
- Elongated/weak: Chest
- Shortened/strong: Upper back



- Lateral curvature
- "C" curve (not compensated) or "S"curve (compensated, curves twice to correct vertical slant)
- Caused by: muscle shortening on one side, compression fx on one side, leg length descrepancy, structural changes in ribs