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1

aesthetics,

philosophical inquiry
into the nature and expression of beauty

2

art criticism

explanation of current events to the general public via the press

3

fine art includes

paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture, and architecture -- produced specifically for appreciation by an audiecne

4

2 modes of artistic analysis

formal, contextual

5

formal analysis

focuses on the visual qualities of the work itself

6

basic assumption of formal analysis

the artist makes decisions related to the visual aspects of the artwork that can reveal to us something about its meanings

7

contextual analysis

involves looking outside of the work of art (social, religious, economic) in order to determine its meaning in which the work was and continues to be consumed; includes LATER contexts

8

art history as an academic discipline in

mid-18th century

9

pliny the elder

ancient roman historian who sought to analyze historical and contemporary art in his text Natural History

10

Giorgio VAsari

author and artist. during the renaissance, gathered biographies of great italian artists, part and present, in The Lives of the Artists

11

Johann Joachim Wnckelmann

german scholar who lived during the 18th century enlightenment. shifted away from vasari's biographical emphasis to a rigorous study of stylistic cevelopment as related to historical context

12

recent revision of art history

by feminist historians, who have noted that the traditional version of art history has focused largely on white men

13

the ancient objects that remain are those made of enduring materials such as __, __, __, as opposed to __ or __

stone, metal, fired clay

wood fibers

14

oldest works of art

cave paintings found in Chauvet Cave in southeastern France

15

when do the chauvet cave paintings date from

30,000 bce; old stone age (upper paleoithic period)

16

chauvet cave paintings depict

animals -- mammoths, rhinos, lions, horses, buffalos

17

chauvet cave paintings colors

little yellow,

red ochre, black charcoal

18

later cave paintings (15,000 to 10,000 bce) discovered in __ and __. __ and __ most famous

france, spain

lascaux, altamira

19

laxcaux and altamira paintings function?

hunting ceremonies or other ritual behaviors

20

another well known group of artworks from old stone age.

most famous of which is

fertility figures -- small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas

venus/woman of willendorf

21

venus of willdendorf dates from

28,000 to 25,000 bce

22

middle stone age aka

mesolithic period

23

climate during middle stone age

the climate warmed; cave dwellers moved out of their caves and began using rock shelters

24

rock shelter vs cave paintings

rock shelter paintings depicted the human figure

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one cave painting at __ included 1 human figure

lascaux

26

the art forms most often linked w/ the new stone aga (aka ___) are ____

neolithic period,

rings/rows of rough-hwen stones located in western europe

27

neolithic period stone artworks -- people call the culture

"megalithic"

28

most well known rock arrangmenet of new stone age

stonehenge on salisbury plain in wiltshire, england; 2100 bce

29

stonehenge features

concentric rings made w/ sarsen (form of sandstone) stones and smaller "bluestones" (indigenous rocks)

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outermost ring of stonehenge

huge sarsen stones in post-and-lintel construction -- 2 upright pieces topped w/ crosspiece (lintel)

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outside of stonehenge formation to is the vertically placed "heel stone." when one stands in the center of the rings and looks outward, the heel stone marks

the point at which the sun rises on the midsummer solstice

32

usually, art thrives in

highly organized cultures w/ stable population centers (usually great cities) that house ruling classes who in turn support the work of artists

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ziggurats

stepped pyramids of the sumerians in mesopotamia

34

art of akkadian dynasty tends to reflect

emphasis on monarchy, w/ akkadian rulers depicted in freestanding and relief sculptures

35

who invaded akkadians

futi, barbarous mountaineers

36

best-known works of art during King of Ur (neo-sumerian ruler)'s era were

ziggurats built at the city centers.

37

ziggurat function

temples, also served as administrative and economic centers

38

corinthian style vases

set figures against floral, ornamented background

39

athenian style vases

used black girues, but were more linear and larger in scale

40

best known ancient greek art

from athens from classical period

41

during the early classical period, athenian temples were built with

sturdy , Doric columns

42

sculpture of early classical period was characterized by

solemnity, strength, simplicity of form; most often focused on a figure or scene either in the moment before or the moment after an important action

43

greek statuary evolved from ___ to

stiff, frontal presentation like that of the egyptians

to increasingly natural-looking figure

44

contrapposto

pose. aka counter positioning. invented to show the body to its best advantage. standing figure is posed w/ its weight shifted onto one leg, for more relaxed, naturalistic appearnce

45

most famous middle classical period work

parthenon

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architecture declined during the ____ period as athens was defeated in the _____

late classical; peloponnesian

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after athens was defeated, the use of ____ became more and more popular

corinthian columns

48

hellenistic period

increasing influence from eastern civilizations. greek styles blended w/ those of asia minor

49

notable works of hellenistic period

freestanding sculptures such as Venus de Milo, Laocoon Group (designed to present beauty ideals)

50

art of etruscan civ is seen as

transition from ideals of greece to pragmatic concerns of the romans

51

etruscan civ arose in

present day italy in 1st millennium bce

52

etruscan civ known largely from

arts of tomb decoration

53

nothing remains of etruscan buildings as these were

constructed of brick and wood

54

extant etruscan artificats

include sarcophagus lids and other art forms made of baked clay, also bronze objects

55

paintings that remain from etruscans

those found on the walls and ceilings of tombs. done in bright, flat colors, show figures playing music and dancing as part of funeral celebrations

56

early roman art reflected

influence of etruscan art

57

later roman art were

variations of greek works

58

romans made pioneering advancements in

architecture and engineering

59

roman discovered equivalent of modern

concrete

60

romans' concrete allowed them to

fill the spaces btwn stone walls w/ rokcs and rubble . also build huge domed buildings

61

hammurabi, the __, was able to

king of city-state babylonia. centralize power in mesopotamia

62

hammurabi's endduring legacy

he codified babylonian law. code of hammurabi is the oldest legal code known in its entirety

63

best known artwork from hammurabi's period

stone stele onto which hammurabi's code is carved w/ sculpture in high relief at the top that depicts hammurabi receiving inspiration for his code of law from the sun god, shamash

64

which culture dominated in northern mesopotamia

assyrians

65

most notable assyrian artworks

relief carvings, which often depict battles, sieges, hunts, and other iimportant events

66

famous hanging gardens of babylon were constructed during

neo-babylonian period

67

/ishtar gate

gateway to the great ziggurat of the temple of Bel, considered one of the greatest works of architecture in which animals figures are superimposed on a walled surface. constructed during neo babylonian period

68

persian empire fluorished in

present day iran. 538 bce - 330 bce

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persians were notable for their

impressive architectural achievements

70

most important persian work

palace persepolis. constructed of stone, brick, wood; reflects influence of egyptian archicture

71

ancient egyptian civ dates

3000 bce to 332 bce

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egypt was conquered by

alexander the great

73

list recognizable works of ancient egypt

Sphinx
Giza pyramids
larger than life statues of pharoahs
portrait head of queen nefertiti

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hierarchical scale

uses status of figures/objects to determine their relative sizes within an artwork; featured in much egyptian art

75

function of palette of king narmer

ceremonial palette for mixing cosmetics

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image of palette of king narmer

narmer holds hair of a fallen enemy. arm raised for devliering deathblow. smaller figures of efeated enemies

77

palette of king narmer was relic from

old kingdom

78

fractional representation

figures are presented so that each part of the body is shown as clearly as possible. head is in profile w/ eye in frontal view, torso in full frontal view; lower body, legs, feet in profile

79

most famous egyptian tomb

that of boy king tutankhamun

80

tut's mask

found in innermost layer of sarcophagus. made of gold, decoraged w/ blue glass and smiprecious stones

81

3 major cultures of aegean sea

cycladic, minoan, mycenaean

82

art centers of 3 greek cultures

cycladic - cyclades (group of islands in the aegean)
minoan - knossos on crete
myceneaen - city of mycenae on greek mainlaid

83

minoan paintings took 2 major forms

1. frescoes on palace walls
2. pottery designs

84

romans pioneered the use of the curved

arch, using this form to build bridges and aqueducts

85

2 buildings that can still be seen in rome

colosseum, pantheon

86

romans didnt present ___ depictions of subjects; rather, they favored ___

naturalistic;

idealistic style that highlighted roman ideals

87

common funerary practice during roman republic

members carry small carved images of deceased family member

88

best known art from byzantine empire

mosaic work in which small ceramic tiles, pieces of
stone, or glass were set into a ground material to
create large murals. largely christian in content

89

famous byzantine architectural work

hagia sophia in constantinople

90

byzantine art -- many mosaics in thecity of

ravenna

91

middle ages - international language: ___; books hand copied on __/__

latin;
vellum / parchment

92

how were books preserved and produced in middle ages

monasteries -- monks copied and illustrated books in their collections

93

illuminated transcripts were so valuable that

they were chained to the tables where they were read

94

2 notable illuminated manuscripts

book of kells, coronation gospels

95

illuminated manuscripts helped facilitate

exchange of artistic ideas btwn northern and southern europe

96

art of nomadic germanic peoples

metalwork. The metal arts of this
time period were abstract, decorative, and geometric
and often took the form of small-scale, portable
jewelry or ornaments made of bronze, silver, or gold
and covered with patterns of jewels.

97

vikings' culture

seafaring; in scandinavia

98

vikings' most important medium

wood, used to carve designs and sculptures on their wooden ships

99

the vikings eventually merged with

those found in anglo-saxon england and celtic ireland. resultant style is often termed hiberno-saxon

100

dominant art form in later midieval art

architecture of churches

101

famous example of romanesque style

saint-sernin in toulouse, france

102

describe romanesque churches

stone vaulted buildings that often replaced earlier churches that had highly flammable wooden roofs. barrel vault

103

barrel vault

tunnel of arches

104

vault

arch-shaped structure that is used as a ceiling or as
a support to a roof

105

Massive walls had to be built to
support

the heavy stone arches of the Romanesque
style

106

gothic style dates

12th century = 16th century

107

gothic style was largely applied to

construction of churches.

108

2 characteristics of gothic style

1. pointed arches
2. ribbed vaults

109

ribbed vaults

framework of thin
stone ribs or arches built under the intersection of
the vaulted sections of the ceiling.

110

pointed arches gave

an upward, soaring sense to Gothic interiors.

111

flying buttresses were developed when architects learned that

that the downward and outward pressure
created by the arches of the barrel vault could be
counteracted by the use of flying buttresses

112

flying buttressses

additional
bracing material and arches placed on the
exterior of the building

113

flying buttresses allowed for

larger windows, many of which were filled with
beautiful stained glass, and higher ceilings.

114

A classic
example of a Gothic cathedral i

Chartres Cathedral
in France (begun c. 1145; rebuilt after 1194)

115

The artist most
often mentioned in connection with this transitional
time period (later medieval --> renaissance)

a Florentine named Giotto di
Bondone

116

Giotto di
Bondone best known for

frescoes

117

A key advance visible in Giotto's works
is

his use of a simple perspective, achieved in large
part by overlapping and modeling his figures in the
round

118

giotto's simple perspective created the illusion of

a stage
for his figures, giving the viewer a sense of looking
into the event.

119

Giotto's works were different from
many Gothic works as

he gave his figures powerful
gestures and emotional expressions.

120

renaissance was the time period in which __ was 1st developed

paper money

121

use of paper money led to

vast fortunes
accumulated by notables such as the Medici
family.

122

big difference in artistic discussion starting in the renaissacne. why did this happen?

the lives and works of individual
artists are often highlighted, while this has not
been the case in our discussion of earlier periods.
emphasis on individual genius