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a competition held in the city of Florence
in 1401 for the design of the doors for the city's
new baptistery. who was winner

lorenzo ghiberti


ghierti's design

had figures harkening back to those
of classical Greece. Ghiberti's panel design depicts
the sacrifice of Isaac, in which Isaac appears as a
classical Greek figure.


gates of paradise

door panels for cathedral entrance, made by ghiberti


fillipo brunelleschi

After losing the
competition, he concentrated on architecture and
won a competition to complete the dome of the cathedral
in Florence, which had remained unfinished
for many years because architects had not been able
to construct the huge vault that was required to
span the open space. Brunelleschi achieved this major
engineering feat with the help of a double-shelled
dome design that has been imitated by many later


Brunelleschi is also credited with developing

linear (single vanishing point) perspective.


Masaccio (1401-28), a Renaissance painter, is
given credit for putting Brunelleschi's theory into
practice, as he used both __ and __ in his frescoes

linear and aerial perspective


donatello best known for? most famous work?

founder of modern sculpture.

bronze statue of david



his best-known painting, The
Birth of Venus ( c. 1482), established an image of female
beauty that has lasted through the centuries.
His long-necked Venus with her languid pose and
flowing hair was one of the first paintings of a fulllength
nude female since antiquity.


leondaro's key innovation

sfumato -- from the Italian word [umo,
meaning smoke, is the use of mellowed colors and a
blurred outline. Sfumato allows forms to blend subtly
into one another without perceptible transitions.


leondaro da vinci's 2 most famous paintings

mona lisa, the last supper


high renaissacne - 2 famous "renaissance men"

leonardo da vinci and michelangelo


Michelangelo di Buonarotti,

competition w/ flawed marble. created llarger than life statue of david; meant to be viewed from far below (placed on the high facade of florence cathedral". spent 4 years in frescoe of sistine chapel


sanzio vs michelangelo

Raphael was not a loner, but employed numerous
assistants to help him cover the Pope's official
chambers with large, sumptuous frescoes,


2 of sanzio's masterworks

school of athens, sistine madonna


school of athens

homage to the
great Greek philosophers and scientists.


sistine madonnna

created an image of the Virgin Mary
that has endured in religious paintings throughout
the centuries.


(14 77 /78-1510) is credited with making innovations
in the subject matter

as he painted
scenes not taken from the Bible or from classical or
allegorical stories.


Prior to Giorgione's painting The
Tempest (c. 1508), artists had generally

begun with
the figures that were to be the subject matter of the
painting and then added the background


georgione's most famous work

the tempest -- landscape became the subject. the figures depicted are of lesser importance
than the storm that threatens them


prolific venetian painters

georgione, tintoretto, titian vecelli


how was Titian was an innovative

He used various elements of setting,
such as a column or a curtain, as the backdrop for
his portraits instead of an atmospheric neutral
background, as had been the custom


tintoretto is often linked with an artistic style called



Mannerist works are characterized

the distortion of certain elements such as perspective
or scale and are also recognizable by their
use of acidic colors and the twisted positioning of
their subjects


Although Tintoretto used some Mannerist
pictorial techniques,

his color schemes differed
from those of the Mannerists.


Tintoretto presented
his figures from dramatic angles-it is said

he used small figures as models and arranged
them and rearranged them until he had the most
dramatic effect. He also used chiaroscuro



dramatic constrasts of ligt and dark used to heighten the
emotional impact of his subjects


One of the most important events impacting
the history of sixteenth-century art was

the reformation


what happened during reformation

Protestants criticized the opulence and
corruption of the Catholic Church and called for its


what happened to art during the reformation

this meant a move away from
the richly decorated churches and religious imagery
of the Renaissance.


counter reformation emphasized

even more than
before, lavish church decoration and art of a highly
dramatic and emotional nature


One of the artists
most closely associated with the Counter Reformation

Dominikos Theotokopoulos, known as El Greco


el greco was influneced by



most well known mannerist painter

el greco


art in northern vs southern europe

nothern - smaller scale; more realistic


why were northern european paintings more realistic

oil paints


__ and __ are often considered the
greatest artists of the Renaissance in northern Europe

matthias grunewald,

albrecht durer


grunewald best known for

his religious scenes and
his depiction of Christ's crucifixion


gruenwald's masterpiece

isemheim altarpiece; work consisting of nine
panels mounted on two sets of folding wings


most famous artist of reformation germany

albrecht durer


durer's style

combined the naturalistic detail
favored by artists of the north with the theoretical
ideas developed by Italian artists


what did durer produce

wrote about theories of art and published
many series of woodcuts and copper engravings,
such as The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse


Hans Holbein the Younger

became court painter to King Henry
VIII of England, and his portrait of Henry VIII shows
not only his talent for presenting details, but also
his ability to capture the psychological character of
his subjects.


"baroque" refers to

late 16th century - mid 18th century artworks


styles differed from those of the Renaissance in that

Baroque artworks tended to be less static than Renaissance
examples; the Baroque is characterized
by a greater sense of movement and energy


political diff -- baroque vs renaissance

renaissance - conflict btwn cities
baroque - conflict btwn empires


baroque art appealed largely to the



The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in
Europe were a time when society was governed
by a ruling class that

viewed its power as a divine


which enlightenment author complained about wealth gap

jean-jacques rousseau


The word "baroque" has come to represent

the richness
of color and ornamentation that heightened the
energy and emotion that were characteristic of the
great works of art of this period. dyamic works presented imagery in the MOST DRAMATIC way possible


Baroque painters made use of

chiaroscuro, using
exaggerated contrasts between light and dark to
create a theatrical kind oflighting that made the subject
appear to be in a spotlight.



an Italian Baroque painter, was renowned for
his dramatic use of light and dark, and his technique
influenced many artists who followed. Caravaggio's
work is so important that artworks using extremes
of dark and light are often termed "caravaggesque."
Caravaggio's work is also notable for its provocative
degree of naturalism.


caravaggio depicted virgin mary and apostles not as

noble figures in classical garb as they had traditionally
been represented, but instead depicted them as
poor and simple folks in threadbare garments.


Artemisia Gentileschi

w/ recent revisions of art history, she has joined the ranks of important baroque artists. She is particularly known for her remarkable adaptation
of Carravaggio's techniques. Her works include self-portraits and paintings of old testament women


most important baroque artist

gianlorenzo bernini


since bernini worked as a
designer in the theater,

many of his works reflect
the influence of his theatrical background


bernini's most iportant masterpiece

Ecstasy of Saint
Teresa, set into the altar of the coronaro chapel


bernini did his most significant work in



bernini's early life

the son of a sculptor, was
a child prodigy who received recognition from the
Pope at age seventeen.


describe ecstasy of saint teresa

The space includes a concealed stainedglass
window that bathes the figure of the saint indramatic gold lighting, as if she were on a stage


how did Bernini
treated his medium in a new way as well.

did not adhere to the classical calm and natural flow
of drapery around the figure that had been used in
the past. Instead, Bernini pushed the use of marble
to new limits and tried to make stone look like real
fabric and even clouds


rembrandt van rijn

a Dutch artist,
created some of the best-known works from the Baroque
period. Rembrandt is recognized not only as a
painter and printmaker, but also as one of the greatest
draftsmen ever


rembrandt's best known work

The Night Watch (1642), more properly known as
Sortie of Captain Banning Cocq's Company of the Civic


break in tradition w/ the night watch

Like many other group portraits of the time,
each member of the company depicted paid a certain
sum to be included in the painting. Rembrandt
chose to break with tradition and grouped the members
of the company in a way that gave more attention
to some members than to others.


french ruler during baroque period

louis XIV


what did louis xiv do

all of France and built a lavish palace at Versailles
beginning in 1669. The palace and its grounds covered
about two hundred acres and included various
grand chateaux and gardens. There was a stable, capable
of housing hundreds of horses, and a grand orangerie,
or greenhouse, for the king's orange trees. Eventually there was also a zoo and a system of
fountains and waterfalls that included a grand canal
large enough for the staging of mock sea battles.





sun king

ex: louis xiv, around whom the world of the court revolved


important feature os louis xiv's court

to influence art well into the nineteenth century
was the system of choosing and supporting
artists called the Salon. This annual exhibition established
a set of rules for judging art that is still
influential in the art world today. It was also under
the rule of Louis XIV that the Academic Royale de
Peinture et de Sculpture, often referred to simply as
the "Academy," was established, and it soon came
to be a means for imposing aesthetic standards and
principles of taste.


diego valezquez

court painter of king philip IV of spain. method of
building his figures from patches of color, rather
than starting from a drawing, became a model for
many later artists. In fact, Velazquez's work had an
influence on the movement we call Impressionism


rococo vs baroque

Whereas the Baroque aimed
to arouse grand emotions, Rococo works were celebrations
of gaiety, romance, and the frivolity of
the grand life at court, particularly the court at Versailles.The emphasis was on light-hearted decoration
with the use of gold and pastel colors.


3 most famous rococo artists

jeane-antoine watteau,
francois boucher,
jean honore fragonard


Jean-Antoine Watteau

was the leader of a new generation and the innovator
of a new genre of painting called the fete galante.
Paintings of this genre generally depicted members
of the nobility in elegant contemporary dress enjoying
leisure time in the countryside


francois boucher

was influenced by Watteau's delicate
style. He became the favorite painter of Madame
Pompadour, mistress to Louis XV, and his works
often transformed the characters of classical myth
into scenes of courtly gallantry, with an emphasis on
nubile nudes.


jean honore fragonard

was also promoted by Madame Pompadour. Fragonard
studied with Boucher, and his works strongly
reflect Boucher's influence.


art after revolution of 1789

an attempt to hearken back to the democratic ideals
of the ancient world, art of this period demonstrated
a revival of interest in the art of classical
Greece and Rome. This style, called Neoclassicism,
emerged in the decades leading up to the Revolution
and was also influenced by Enlightenment philosophy.


The Neoclassical style, a direct challenge to

the Rococo and its associations with the aristocracy


neoclassicism epitomized in

the work of Jacques Louis David
(1748-1825), whose paintings, such as the Oath of
the Horatii (1784), illustrated republican virtues.


what was ironic about jacques louis david

Following the Revolution, David joined members of
the new government as the master of ceremonies for the grand revolutionary mass rallies. Later he
became a dedicated painter to Napoleon Bonaparte,
and in this capacity he painted large propagandistic
canvases that would seem to undermine his earlier
revolutionary ideals.


jean dominique ingres

david's pupil. his work shows the
sharp outlines, unemotional figures, careful geometric
composition, and rational order that are hallmarks
of the Neoclassical style.



This style hearkened
back to the emotional emphasis of the Baroque
and had similar characteristics, though the subject
matter was different. Whereas Neoclassical works
emphasized line, order, and a cool detachment, Romantic painting tended to be highly imaginative and
was characterized by an emotional and dreamlike
quality-the Romantics favored feeling over reason.


Romantic works are also characterized by

of exotic or melodramatic elements and
often took awe-inspiring natural wonders as their
subject matter.


eugene delacroix

proponent of romanticism. rival of ingres. his work centered
on exotic themes and included foreign settings, violence
involving animals, and historical subject matter.


3 important romantic artists

theodore gericault,
william blake,
eugene delacroix


realism was a reaction to

neoclassicism and romanticism


The Realist style was
inspired by the idea that

painting must illustrate all
the features of its subjects, including the negative
ones. It was also obligated to show the lives of ordinary
people as subjects that were as important as
the historical and religious themes that dominated
the art exhibitions of the day


artist who represented the realist movmenet most forcefully

gustave courbet


2 other realist artists other than courbet

honore daumier
jean francois millet


the stonebreakers

courbet. painting of ordinary workmen repairing
a road at the official government-sponsored Salon. also
had political implications in the context of a wave
of revolutions that spread across Europe beginning
in 1848.


describe courbet

a flamboyant and outgoing personality
who outraged conventional audiences


Impressionism largely grew out of

with the rigid rules that had come to dominate
the Salons held to recognize selected artists
each year.


edouard manet

referred to as "first impressionist" but refused to consider himself as an impressionist. his work showed light by juxtaposing
bright, contrasting colors


salon des refuses

an exhibit of
works rejected by the "official" Salon


manet's controversial painting

Le Dejeuner
sur L'herbe [Luncheon on the Grass) . its violation of the unwritten rule that
the only appropriate nudes in contemporary art
were classical figures or women in suitably exotic
settings. In Luncheon on the Grass, Manet based his
work on an engraving with a classical subject matter,
but he showed contemporary clothed men with
a nude woman as part of the group.


monet's work

impression, sunrise. the critics
seized on this mere "impression" as a means
by which to ridicule the movement.


It was Monet
who urged his fellow artists to work outdoors, and
these endeavors were aided by

technical advances
in paint and brush production that made the medium
more portable


how did impressionist artists paint

put their
colors directly on the canvas with rapid strokes to
capture the rapidly changing light


Scientific studies
of vision and color led to the discovery that shadows

were not merely gray but that they reflected the
complementary color of the object casting them.


2 other impressionists

camille pissarro
alred sisley


paul cezanne

Dissatisfied with the lack
of solid form. in Impressionist works, Cezanne set
about redefining art in terms of form. most influential post-impressionist artist


cezanne suggested
that a painting could be structured

as a series
of planes with a clear foreground, middle ground,
and background and argued that the objects in the
painting could all be reduced to their simplest underlying
forms-a cube, a sphere, or a cone.


__ was a unifying feature for many of the

The ongoing search for more and more brilliant


The work of Georges Seurat
(1859-91) placed an emphasis on

the scientific rules
of color.


Seurat applied his colors

in small dots of
complementary colors that blended in the eye of the
viewer in what is called optical mixing. The results
were vibrant, though the emphasis on technique
also resulted in static compositions.


Van Gogh, using theories of __ and __,
set about ___

color and very direct application of paint;

capturing the bright light of southern


Van Gogh developed the
idea that

the artist's colors should not slavishly imitate
the colors of the natural world, but should be
intensified to portray inner human emotions.


paul gauguin life story

Though he was a successful stockbroker,
Gauguin left his wife and family while in his
forties to pursue his art career. He worked for a short
time with van Gogh in southern France but was still
dissatisfied with his art. Searching for more intense
color and a more "unschooled" style, he went to Tahiti,
where he painted works that depict the island's
lush, tropical setting and native people, as seen
through the lens of colonialism.


edgar degas

often combined the snapshot
style of photography with a Japanese-like perspective
from slightly above his subject.



In England, a group of artists dissatisfied with
the effects of the Industrial Revolution banded together. These artists created a style that attempted to return
to the simpler forms of pre-Renaissance art.
The Pre-Raphaelites created many quasi-religious
works that often blended Romantic, archaic, and
moralistic elements. emphasized nature and sweeping curves


pre-rephaealites paved the way for

art nouveau


art noveau

became popular in the late nineteenth
and early twentieth centuries, was a style of
decoration, architecture, and design that was characterized
by the depiction of leaves and flowers in
flowing, sinuous lines.


henri matisse and similar artists

used colors so intense
that they violated the sensibilities of critics and the
public alike. Taking their cue from van Gogh, these
artists no longer thought their use of color needed
to replicate color as seen in the real world.



"wild beasts." referred to henri matisse and his group of artists. they wildly used arbitrary color


pablo picasso and georges braque

developing a whole new system of art. Picasso
and Braque broke down and analyzed form in new
ways in the style that came to be known as Cubism. Psychologists had explained that human experience
is much richer than can be gathered from a traditional
painting that shows a single view from a fixed
vantage point.


picasso and braque had the habit of breaking figures up into

multiple overlapping perspectivees


cubists were influence d by

African art, which
they imagined to be more intuitive and closer to
nature than intellectualized European art



highly charged attempt to
make the inner workings of the mind visible in art


die brucke

In Germany, an art developed that emphasized
emotional responses. A group of artists calling
themselves Die Briicke, which included Ernst Ludwig
Kirchner (1880-1938) and Emil Nolde (1867-
1956), took the brilliant arbitrary colors of the Fauvists
and combined them with the intense feelings
found in the work of the Norwegian artist Edvard


Der Blaue Reiter

Another Expressionist
group in Germany. led by the
Russian artist Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944), who
around 1913 began to paint totally abstract pictures
without any pictorial subject.


De Stijl

Dutch artist Piet Mondrian
(1872-1944), whose De Stijl canvases, consisting
of flat fields of primary color, have become a
hallmark of modern art.


Other pioneers of total
abstraction were

1. russian painter Kazimir Malevich
2. Dutch artist Piet Mondrian


2 reasons responsible for the eventual shift of
the center of the art world from Paris to New York.

1. armory show
2. effects of WWI