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1

the major regions we will examine include what
we will call

Southern Africa, Eastern Africa, Central
Africa, and Western Africa

2

why isnt NOrth Africa included

The history of the art of Northern Africa, and Egypt
in particular, has generally been told within the context
of Western culture. Egypt is typically seen as a
forerunner of the Greek and Roman art it precedes
in the Mediterranean region. Art of Northern Africa
is also often covered in studies dealing with the advent
of Islamic art or the expansion of Christian art.

3

The first Sub-Saharan objects appeared
in the West in the

1400s

4

Fascination
with African art peaked again in the __
century, as __

early 20th

avant-garde artists, primarily in France
and Germany, were inspired by the visual forms of
African art-sculpture and masks in particular.

5

For example, the Western tradition emphasizes __
and ___ in artistic practice. African art, on the other hand, is generally
more focused on __.

evolution and progress

continuity

6

Additionally, African art has not been understood
as privileging __ in the way Western
art generally has.

authorship

7

many African objects are __ in
nature

functional

8

name 3 durable materials

stone, ceramic, metal

9

a central aspect of much African
art that we will see repeatedly in this Resource
Guide is

centrality of the human figure

10

another central theme is a focus on

visual abstraction

11

describe visual abstraction in african art

not necessarily express itself in the total abstraction
seen in twentieth-century art in the West, but
rather involves the distortion, stylization, and exaggeration
of figures and imagery in African art

12

Other visual and conceptual
concerns that may be seen as fairly consistent
in African art include an emphasis on

sculptural forms

13

For our purposes, "southern" Africa includes
present-day (7)

Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique,
South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho.

14

5 cultural groups in southern africa

San,
Zulu, Swazi, Sotho, and Shona peoples

15

Most studies of African art end with discussions
of the __ and __ regions

southern, eastern

16

art from __ and __ regions are more emphasized and widely studied than art from __ and __ regions

southern, eastern

western, central

17

speical art thing found in southern africa

ancient rock art

18

Eastern Africa, like the southern region, is where

some of the most ancient traces of African culture
may be found

19

Eastern Africa provides the
earliest evidence anywhere in the world of

the development
of distinctive human activity

20

We will
consider "eastern" Africa to include present-day

Sudan and South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia,
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, and Madagascar

21

geography of
Eastern Africa is extremely varied, though it has the
distinction of being home to

two tallest mountains
in Africa -- Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount
Kenya.

22

eastern african landscape is esp. well suited to ___, as ____

agriculture

water is relatively abundant and the
climate is cool and dry

23

most culturally and
ethnically diverse of the African regions we will discuss

eastern africa

24

eastern african trade -- __ and __ were imported,
while __, __, __, and __ were sent across
the Mediterranean Sea and to the Near East.

iron goods, glass

gum, ,spices, ivory, and horn

25

It was
also largely in Eastern Africa that ___ took hold on the continent

foreign religious
systems

26

Christianity arrived
shortly after the ___ in ___, with
the development of ____ in
__ soon to follow

edict of milan, 313

strong coptic art tradition in egypt

27

Islam arrived in c.___, again
first in __

640, egypt

28

Some of the most exciting examples are the painted
scenes found in rock shelters, the oldest of which
are approximately

26,000 yrs old

29

old rock shelter paintings
are generally found in

the mountains at the
edge of the South African plateau

30

cave shelter paintings -- europe vs africa, regarding depth

europe -- almost always
found deep in the cave areas

africa -- exposed in relatively shallow, open rock shelters

31

cave shelter paintings -- europe vs. africa, regarding size

african paintings tend to be smaller than their European
counterparts

32

what did african cave shelter paintings most often depict

suggest
narrative scenes-presenting images of people
dancing, fighting, hunting, and performing rituals.

33

African prehistoric
rock art also includes many engraved images, created through __ or __ techniques

chipping / incising

34

african prehistoric engraved images are typically found

in the semi-arid
plains of the interior.

35

why are african prehistoric engraved images hard to date

They are carved into exposed
rocks, which are often weathered

36

3 types of african prehistoric engraved images

1) fine, hairline engravings carved into the rock surface;
2) animal representations made using a "pecking"
technique, where a stone is hammered into the
surface of the rock to produce pockmarks;
3) geometric forms

37

african engraved geometric forms date from

1300 bce

38

african engraved animal imagery dates from

6000 years ago

39

The rock engraving shown in your Art Reproductions
Booklet comes from

Twyfelfontein Valley in
Namibia, near the Brandberg Mountain

40

Twyfelfontein Valley is one of the richest sites for __ in africa

animal imagery

41

The most prevalent imagery includes animal
forms such as

elephants, rhinoceroses, zebras, and
antelopes. Giraffes are also quite common

42

the mass slaughter of animals in Africa began
in earnest during the

19th century

43

In addition to the animal
forms, imagery at Twyfelfontein includes a handful
of human images -- __ in total

27

44

in addition to animal forms and human images, imagery at Twyfelfontein inclues

1. human footprints
2. various geometric forms -- circles, lines, arches

45

in Stone Age Petroglyphs, which 3 animals stand on the same line (in decreasing size)

giraffe
lion
rhinoceros

46

Stone Age Petroglyphs: The animals all appear to be oriented to the __.
They are in __ profile

right; strict

47

Stone Age Petroglyphs: The fascinating exception to the naturalistic renditions
of these animals is the presentation of the __

lion

48

Stone Age Petroglyphs: What is striking about the animal
is the depiction of its __ and __

feet, tail.
feet -- paws have 5 digits, not 4
tail -- greatly elongated, extends straight away from the cat's body before angling sharply at a ninety-degree angle. The tail ends, not with a tuft of fur, but with yet
another print

49

The Great Bantu Migration began around

1000 bce

50

great bantu migration was extremely significant in that it

completely
transformed the population of most of
Sub-Saharan Africa.

51

great bantu migration began in the area of present-day __ and __

chad and cameroon

52

What is generally
known is that the great bantu migration appears to have happened in two
major waves. describe the waves

The first surge moved to the east and
through the forests of the Congo. The second traveled south along the eastern coast and inland along
the region's extensive river system.

53

with the great bantu migration came 2 major developments?

mastery of iron production, cultivation of food crops

54

The introduction of the WHICH TWO CROPS??
helped support greater and greater populations in
sub saharan africa, which grew to fill the vast landscape
around them

Asian banana and the yam

55

the __ are the earliest sculptures
to have been found in South Africa

"Lydenburg Heads"

56

"Lydenburg Heads" discovered in [ year ] in [ place ]

1962 in the northeastern town of Lydenburg

57

how were lydenburg heads discovered

A
schoolboy stumbled upon them in an eroding gully
just outside of the town. As the hillside weathered, it
exposed a pit filled with pottery shards, beads, metal
ornaments, and other domestic trash. The fired
clay heads, which were found in fragments, were
taken to Cape Town University for study.

58

lydenburg heads had how many forms?

7 head forms

59

lydenburg heads: The heads are __ and take the basic form
of ____.

hollow,
inverted vessels

60

lydenburg heads: name 3 elements of their decoration

herringbone
patterning, bands of hatched lines, triangular
design motifs

61

lydenburg heads were consturcted in [ medium ] ?

coarse, gritty clay

62

lydenburg heads: It is possible that the forms
started as ____, which were then ___

simple pots;
turned upside
down and embellished with incised carvings
and added clay elements

63

what makes it unlikely that the 2 bigger lydenburg heads were used as masks?

their substantial weight, fragility,
and the positioning of the eye and mouth holes

64

what makes it likely that the 5 smaller lydenburg heads were used as masks?

have holes drilled into their bases
that have been interpreted as anchor points to allow
the forms to be tied to posts or effigies, or possibly
to be strapped on to the top of a dancer's head

65

which lydenburg head is featured in the art reproductions guide

the large intact one

66

Lydenburg Head:: The facial features appear to have been created
through

the working of the existing clay body as
well as the application of additional pieces of modeled
clay

67

Lydenburg Head: These ridges, as well as the two
small knot forms seen near the ears, are typically
understood to represent

facial scarification, a common
practice in many regions of Africa

68

lydenburg head: The hairline and crown of the head are also notable. This appears to have been sculpted into the form
of

an animal, particularly a lion

69

wattle and daub

Using
this method, wooden sticks are woven into a lattice
structure that is then covered with a thick pastelike
material comprised of clay, dirt, sand, dung, and
straw.

70

__ is fairly unusual in traditional African
architecture

stone

71

shona refers to

the peoples
who settled the plateau south of the Zambezi
River in Southern Africa

72

"the plateau south of the Zambezi
River in Southern Africa" -- this region corresponds to areas of prresent day

Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Mozambique.

73

area where shona people lived -- describe landscape

plateau region, primarily savanna woodland

74

great zimbabwe

One
of the most significant of these empires ; flourished from the
eleventh through the fifteenth century.

75

the great zimbabwe is the [ MOST what?? ]

largest ancient structure
in Sub-Saharan Africa

76

zimbabwe (meaning in the past)

a judicial center or royal palace in Shona
culture. The concept basically corresponds with
our contemporary idea of a court

77

zimbabwe (meaning today)

used to describe any of the over three hundred
ruins of this nature on the Zimbabwean plateau

78

The Great Zimbabwe is comprised of three main
sections or components:

Hill Ruin, the Great
Enclosure, and the Valley Ruins.

79

The Great Zimbabwe is comprised of three main
sections or components, all of which include

granite walls enclosing spaces filled with stone
floors, platforms, and mud buildings.

80

hill ruin

oldest section and is sited on a rocky hilltop
overlooking the valley. Its built stone components
are connected to a cave of living rock.

81

time the great enclosure was completed

at least a hundred years
after the Hill Ruin, sometime before 1450 CE.

82

great enclosure

most impressive of the ruins and is characterized
by its largely intact exterior wall,

83

the Valley Ruins
are made up of

various walls and structures dotting
the valley floor between the Hill Ruin and Great Enclosure.

84

great zimbabwe -- The illustration in your Art Reproductions
Booklet is a view from

the Hill Ruin looking down
into the valley.

85

great zimbabwe -- The most obvious feature we see
from this __ perspective is __

semi-aerial;
the wall of the
Great Enclosure.

86

The Great Enclosure's main wall is constructed
of

dry stone masonry -- no mortar was used to bind
the rocks to each other

87

While the great enclosure's size suggests a ___, the wall ___

defensive function;
does not fully enclose the
interior space and meanders

88

great enclosure -- Curving forms, both
in the wall itself, and in details such as the steps at
the entrance points, add

an almost playful, purely
aesthetic component.

89

exfoliated granite

a fascinating
type of natural quarrying. The topography of
the Zimbabwean plateau is characterized by granite
outcroppings. These mounds of stone are stressed
by the annual temperature and humidity changes
in the area-the extreme heat of the summer rainy
season that extends from November to March and
the dry, cold winters from April to October. The
granite breaks apart into even sheets of stone under
these climatic pressures. Shona stone masons were
originally able to collect their materials as needed
by merely picking them up off the ground. Later,
the stone was more actively quarried, as it was
alternately heated and then doused with water to
artificially create these natural weather conditions

90

great enclosure wall medium?

exfoliated granite

91

describe appearance of exfoliated granite

unusually beautiful
aesthetic quality, as the micas in the granite sparkle
and glow in the sun.

92

great enclosure -- ____ are set into the walls, both exterior and interior

various turrets and monoliths

93

what kind of sculptures were found in the buildings enclosed by the Great Enclosure?

a number of carved soapstone sculptures in the
form of birds

94

The bird, and
particularly the eagle or other raptor, was a symbol
for

the Shona kings who ruled the area

95

the Shona kings who ruled the area were symbolized by

The bird, and
particularly the eagle or other raptor

96

The Conical Tower is shaped
like

a grain bin

97

describe conical tower symbolization

In Shona culture, the ruler received
tribute in the form of grain, which he then distributed
to visitors and the poor. Thus, the tower form
is a symbol of royal authority and generosity

98

chikuva

stand upon which a wife displayed
her pottery in the home

99

great zimbabwe -- what did the stepped platform represetn?

the platform served as a symbol for the wife's value
and role in family, and that the tower and platform
together symbolized male and female roles, or those
of the state and the family

100

the great enclosure generally functioned as

a royal court

101

great enclosure -- Structures inside the wall ____, while those outside
____

served the needs of the
ruler and his immediate family;

would have housed other members of the court,
such as minor royalty and governmental officials

102

It is possible that the Hill Ruins were built initially
to house other members of the court, but ____

that as the population increased,
more extensive grounds were needed

103

all the structures of the great zimbabwe emphasize

a human assertion
of itself over nature, albeit with a measure
of respect and unity

104

what did the shona believe about the dead

The
Shona believed that the dead, and particularly the
male head of a family, continued to remain a living
and protective presence

105

The architecture of the Great Zimbabwe,
then, served as a visual demonstration of ___

the ruler's
power over -- and also his ultimate responsibility
to -- the people.

106

shona -- The
land was seen as___, and the
leader's authority was connected to ___

belonging to the ancestors;

his control of
that land, which he merely held in trust during his
lifetime

107

Musical instruments are
often highly decorated, which

beautifies them and indicates
their importance culturally

108

Decorations may also be an integral
component of ___, thus connecting
____,

the sound an
object makes;

ornamentation to the instrument's
functionality

109

The region of ancient Nubia corresponds to present-day

Egypt, the Sudan, and Ethiopia

110

Ancieent Nubia, like ancient Egypt, was

divided into two parts:
Lower Nubia in the north and Upper Nubia in the
south.

111

Nubian culture centered, again like ancient
Egyptian, on

the nile river

112

describe geography of nile river

The river runs northward
from the highlands of Eastern Africa down to
the delta region in the north, where it empties into
the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, "upper" refers to the
highlands of the more southerly area, where "lower"
refers to the lowlands in the northern region

113

The border between Upper and Lower Nubia coincides
with

the modern border between Egypt and
the Sudan.

114

__% of ancient nubia was [ landform ]

96%; desert

115

Nubian culture relied on __, allowing for agricultural production.

the annual
flooding of the Nile to bring the rich soil to the
riverbanks

116

Nubia's Nile Valley provided the only dependable
route

across the Saharan desert to the Mediterranean
Sea

117

Ancient Nubia was seen as __. Nubia became a key crossroads
between __

the "gateway to Africa";

between the African interior and other civilizations
in the broader region.

118

The Nubians traded with (4)

ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, as well
as with cultures from the Near East

119

The Nubians and Egyptians alternately ___. We see evidence of this in
Egyptian art of the period, which often depicts

dominated
each other over time;

the
Nubian rulers who intermittently ruled in the north.

120

Nubian figures can be distinguished by __, as well as __

specific and
distinct symbols of kingship;
recognizable
clothing, jewelry, and short, curly hairstyles

121

the Egyptians depicted themselves with __
skin (for males) or __ (for females)

red brown;

yellow

122

Nubian individuals
were shown with __ in Egyptian art

very dark brown or black
skin

123

Nubian culture can also be distinguished from
the culture of ancient Egypt through (3)

its distinctive
architectural forms, funerary rituals, and pantheon
of gods.

124

many of the descendants of ancient Nubians were relocated with

the construction of
the Aswan High Dam (1960-71) along the Nile.

125

kissar

lyre

126

kissar -- was owned by who?

singer and spiritual healer

127

who holds the kissar?

british museum

128

lydenburg heads are all now on display at

the South
African Museum in Cape Town.

129

Musical
ensembles primarily performed at

weddings and
other life-cycle ceremonies, harvest festivals, and
most importantly, ceremonies associated with the
zar cult.

130

The lyre would have been the __
in a small musical ensemble that included other instruments
such as __ and __

lead instrument;
tambourines and drums

131

Zar ceremonies
were intended as

healing rituals for women in
Nubian culture

132

gender of musicians and their audiecnes?

While the musicians themselves would have been
male, the audience and beneficiaries of the zar ceremonies
would have been largely female

133

during zar ceremonies, women seek to

communicate
with and to placate whatever zar spirits
have taken possession of their bodies in
order to regain an equilibrium, which has
somehow been disturbed

134

the lyre's main body is consturcted of

a hemispherical wooden
form with a skin sound board stretched across its
surface.

135

the lyre was understood as

an anthropomorphic
object-one with human characteristics.

136

Again, according to the British Museum's description,
the lyre has

"two 'eyes', a 'nose' and outstretched
'arms' -and when played it has a 'voice.'

137

Each item exuberantly suspended from this object
likely relates to a specific instance of its use.
One scholar has stated that

"it is probable that each
time the instrument was used in a ceremony, the
person receiving the rituals offered an item of personal
adornment.''

138

People
have inhabited Central Africa (sometimes also
referred to as "Middle Africa") for at least the last

100,000 years

139

although central africa experienced some of the
worst effects of the slave trade and colonialism in, it was the center of

very powerful kingdoms, such as
the Lunda Empire and the Kingdom
of Kongo

140

what countries comprise central africa

southern Cameroon, Gabon,
Equatorial Guinea, the Congo
Republic, Cabinda, the Democratic
Republic of Congo, and northern
Angola

141

central africa is bisected by ___ and is generally defined as the area ___

the equator; the broad area drained by the
Congo River system

142

central africa climate

hot and wet

143

central african cultural groups

Kongo, Fang, Chokwe, Yombe, and Cameroon Grasslands
peoples

144

most central african groups have traditionally engaged in
agricultural production, primarily cultivating (3)

root
crops, bananas, and plantains

145

central aafrican Spiritual practices largely consist of rituals associated
with

initiation rites, veneration of the dead,
and healing ceremonies

146

our study will have a partiuclar focus on ____, which is characteristic of the arts of Central
Africa

sculptural production