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1

The histories of Europe and Africa were intertwined
since

the first exploratory contact in the fifteenth
century

2

leo africanus

Between c.1509 and c.1517, the Spaniard Leo Africanus
visited Western Africa more than once, describing
his journeys in A Geographical History of Africa. described a rich, thriving culture

3

The
greatest number of African slaves exported from the continent
during this period came from __,
where trade relations were most developed.

western africa

4

The colonization of Africa took its fullest
form following

the Berlin Conference of 1884-85

5

It
was at the berlin conference that the major European nations

divided Africa into regions allocated for European
control -- "scramble for africa"

6

The Kongo are a Bantu people who speak the
common language of

kikongo

7

Today, Kongo peoples
live in an area spanning

the western coast of
Africa, from Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo,
south to Luanda in Angola.

8

Kongo societies were organized into a
number of kingdoms, including (5)

the Kongo, Kakongo,
Ngoyo, Loango, and Vungu.

9

The __ was the dominant Kongolese
group in the region.

Kingdom of Kongo

10

what did the kingdom of kongo trade

slaves, ivory, and textiles.

11

Through its diplomatic
relationship with the __, who arrived in
the __, Kongo became a largely
__ kingdom

portuguese
late 15th century
christian

12

The kongo kingdom reached the
height of its power in the __ and __
centuries and then began to weaken throughout
the __ century

16th and 17th;

18th

13

why'd the kongo kingdom weaken

during a period of civil war
when multiple members of the royal family vied for
control of the throne.

14

late 19th century -- which european countries controlled which parts of congo basin?

france -- northern areas (republic of congo)
portuguese -- south (angola)
belgium -- central (Democratic Republic of Congo)

15

the kongo people lived where?

congo basin

16

describe belgian rule of Congo

King
Leopold II initiated Belgian rule in the form of the
Congo Free State in 1885. Some of the worst horrors
of colonialism were enacted in Congo during this period, including extreme violence against the native
population and massive environmental exploitation
and degradation in support of the trade in ivory and
rubber. The Belgians also removed much of the art
and cultural production of the country.

17

beginnign and end of belgian rule

begin: 1908, with the
establishment of the Belgian Congo
end: 1960 when Congo was
declared an independent state

18

Perhaps the most significant spiritual objects
in Kongo culture are the

minkisi (singular nkisi).

19

describe minkisi funcgtion

They are composed in order to relieve and
benefit people, and also to make a profit.
They are composed to visit consequences
upon thieves, witches, those who steal by
sorcery, and those who harbor witchcraft
powers. Also to oppress people. These are
the properties of minkisi, to cause sickness
in a man, and also to remove it

20

minkisi (nkisi)

sculptural forms that serve as receptacles to house
spirits

21

Minkisi are created and maintained by

banganga

22

banganga

spiritual leaders in Kongo culture who serve as healers
and mediums to connect this world with that of
the ancestors

23

what do the kongo peoples believe about the minkisi objects?

The Kongo peoples believe that the
sprits of the dead are housed in the minkisi objects
and that these spirits can be called upon to heal disease
and provide protection or to inflict pain and
suffering on an enem

24

Minkisi generally take the
form of

a vessel, such as a gourd, ceramic container,
or wrapped bundle.

25

minkisi are filled w/

wide variety of materials-bilongo or "medicine" -
including animal parts, dirt, and fruit.

26

nkondi

a specific type of minkisi that are particularly
aggressive in nature

27

nkondi are constructed
in a number of different forms, though the __, such as the example we will examine
here, is most frequently seen

human
figure type

28

Nkondi are typically used in

rituals intended to
discover and punish criminals

29

One calls upon the
nkondi to

avenge a wrong

30

after calling upon the nkondi, the supplicant

then affirms this appeal by driving
a metal nail or scrap into the sculpture

31

the practice of affirming a request to the nkondi by driving a metal piece into the sculpture tells us that

The
more bristling with metal fragments a nkondi is, the
more it has been in use and thus the more powerful
its magic.

32

who holds the Nail Figure?

Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA)

33

the nail figure depicts a variety
of roles in one:

-chief, doctor, priest, and judge

34

the predominance of __ over _ in the Nail figure indicates
its use primarily in __

blades over nails;
civil matters

35

the nkondi is an abstracted representation
of __

socially unacceptable behavior, as well as a physical
demonstration of a community's efforts to right
such wrongs

36

One of the most significant details of this nkondi
figure is the

large swelling at its belly, which has
a large cowrie shell embedded within it

37

the nkondi's belly serves as

the receptacle for the nkondi's medicine,
the element that gives it its power

38

Reliquary objects

containers that hold relics of the dead

39

The bones and other relics of important
relatives were collected b/c

they were believed to be imbued
with the powers that those extraordinary
people had during their lives, powers that
could be drawn upon to help the living

40

a ___ surmounts the reliquary vessel, typically carved in __ but also possibly fashioned in __

scculpted head form; wood, metal

41

reliquary vessels: the heads are not
intended to be __, but rather
are __

portraits of the deceased; protectors of the relic materials inside

42

2 primary functions of reliquaries

1) consultation
with the dead, particularly prior to undertaking
any significant event.
2) initiation rituals. With such ceremonies, youth
are brought into full adulthood and introduced to
the ancestors and culture of their community.

43

reliquary rituals
were intended to elicit

commmunication w/ the dead

44

The Fang people of Gabon live primarily in the

rainforests of southern Cameroon and northern Gabon

45

the fang of gabon are one of twenty clans that make up the
__ ethnic group

Beti-Pahuin

46

In terms of artistic production, the Fang are particularly
known for their

reliquary statuary

47

Bieri

Fang people's ancestor cult

48

the great bieri is the [ MOST ] what ??

largest known Fang head of its kind

49

described materials used in the great bieri

It
is carved in wood polished liberally with palm oil.

50

what has the palm oil done for the great bieri?

The oil has not only preserved the sculpture, it has
given it the rich, black, burnished surface we see today.

51

what color is the wood used in the great bieri?

red brown

52

ekuma

a wig-like headdress worn by Fang warriors in
the nineteenth century

53

great bieri -- the long, cylindrical neck would have originally connected the head
to

a bark box containing the skulls of at least nine
generations of the family lineage

54

nsek-bieri

portable
ancestral shrine containing the skulls of at least nine
generations of the family lineage

55

a nsek-bieri allowed the fang to

retain and protect their ancestors during
the clan's primarily migratory period

56

trace the ownership of the great bieri

1. Chilean poet Vicente Huidobro
2. French art dealer Paul Guillaume
3. British sculptor Jacob Epstein
4. Robert Goldwater purchased for Museum of Primitive Art in New York
5. transferred to Metropolitan Museum
of Art

57

Almost
all African societies use __, making it a major
unifying force across the continent

masks

58

In its most basic form, a mask is

an object to cover
the head or face

59

masks
also present a great deal of variety and creativity
within these established norms. They tend to emphasize

simplification, distortion and exaggeration
in their detail

60

masks are meant to __, rather than a __ rendering

capture the spirit
of a character,; naturalistic

61

It is possible that masking activity began with

the use of animal skins and heads, "first to embody,
and then to deceive, sought-after prey and/or to placate
their spirits

62

about masks -- Many of these african myths offer the idea that

women were the first to know the secrets of masks
and to perform masquerade. This power was later
taken from women, and today most masquerade is
performed by men.

63

Masquerade is performed for a variety of reasons,
though in general this activity is consistent with the
nkondi and reliquary examples previously discussed
in that the goal is to

build bridges between the world
of the living and the world of the spirits.

64

how does masquerade connect the living and spiritual realms?

materialize spirits by impersonating them
so that these spirits may act upon the human realm
and, equally, so that people may respond to-thank,
placate, entertain-the forces upon which life depends

65

The Chokwe were originally one of the clans of
the

lunda empire

66

The Chokwe nation was established
in Angola at the end of the

16th century

67

who established the chokwe nation

a disinherited son of a Lunda king (although
it remained under the control of the Lunda until
the end of nineteenth century)

68

Politically, the Chokwe are organized into

small,
decentralized, relatively autonomous chiefdoms

69

__ is very important in Chokwe
society, with __ organized into __

hunters, hunters;
a professional
hunting society that is supported by significant
aspects of Chokwe religious practice

70

what type of society is the chokwe

matrilineal

71

Pwo

a mask category that celebrates founding female
ancestors of the Chokwe culture

72

Indeed, Pwo "is said to

reincarnate the
feminine ancestors of the Chokwe and to encourage
fertility."

73

Pwo is typically performed with

Cihongo,
her male counterpart who represents wealth.

74

the pwo + cihongo's performance does what?

brings fecundity and
prosperity to the community

75

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the pwo mask is __, which suggests __

is the linear detail inscribed across its surface. Such
detail typically indicates tattoo or scarification decorations
of the face

76

pwo mask -- The markings on
the cheeks are understood to suggest

tears falling
down the mask's face-a detail that relates to one of
Pwo's key ritual functions.

77

pwo mask -- The pattern on the forehead has
been described as

a cosmogram

78

Much Chokwe masquerade relates to

initiation
rituals-celebrations that mark the transition from
childhood to adulthood.

79

why is the tear motif present on the pwo mask?

intiation rituals --> marks the dissolution of the bonds of intimacy between
mothers and their sons. The pride and sorrow
that event represents for Chokwe women is alluded
to by the tear motif

80

The figure of the king is centrally important in
most African cultural groups.
The king serves a
variety of roles,

frequently acting not only as the
political leader, but also as the supreme spiritual
figure. In fact, the king is often understood to be divine.

81

images
and objects related to the king often emphasize his

head and hand

82

2 common images connected w/ king

elephant and leopard

83

why's the leopard treated as the main symbol of chieftainship?

it embodies qualities such as courage,
strength, ferocity and cunning which are considered
appropriate for chiefs

84

why is common animal
image connected to the king is the elephant?

the elephant head implies a reference to extraordinary
powers ( deriving from the colossal might of
the animal), as befits a king

85

why do images epmahsize the king's head and hand?

the hand, in a ritual
context, signifies a man's power to do things, i.e.,
his own ability to achieve success in material and
practical things," while the head is a symbol of good
fortune

86

Kingship in Africa is marked by

the use of specific
material objects

87

Particular precious materials may
be associated with the king, such as

gold and ivory
or specific types of beads.

88

the first
objects from Black Africa to reach European collections
were

ivories brought from West Africa to
Portugal in the last years of the fifteenth century

89

define Ivory

a hard, white material harvested from the
teeth and tusks of animals

90

what did the portuguese nickname ivory

"white gold"

91

Today the Yombe live in

the northwestern tip of
the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in the
Republic of the Congo

92

the yombe cultural group is am amalgamation of

various clans who migrated to the
region from 15th - 17th centuries

93

Today the Yombe are organized into
__ major clans

nine

94

yombe -- clan chiefs are elected by the clan in recognition
of

their social status and wealth as well as their
oratory skills

95

yombe -- role of clan chiefs

Clan chiefs wield primary religious
power and also act as the highest judges within the
community

96

describe Finial of a Royal Scepter:

It is an ornamental flourish decorating the end
of a staff that would have been held by the Yombe
king

97

The finial depicts
a figure -- describe

seated with crossed legs. In one hand
he holds a horn or short scepter, and in the other an
object which he raises to his mouth. probably the king

98

how does the finial depict a key aspect of
Yombe spiritual practice?

In order to connect with the spirit world,
the· king would chew on a hallucinogenic root in ritual.
the top portion is hollowed out and would have served
as a receptacle for the plant consumed by the chief.

99

The peoples of the Cameroon Grasslands include
three smaller subgroups

Bamilike, Barnum,
and Bamenda Tikar

100

ppls of cameroon grasslands all arrived from the __ during
the period of the Bantu migration

north

101

according to cameroon grasslands ppl, The
spirits of ancestors are held in

the preserved
skulls of the deceased, which are venerated and
maintained over time.

102

The Cameroon Grasslands
people rely primarily on __ (2),
with __ functioning as a relatively peripheral
activity

farming and animal husbandry;
hunting

103

Traditionally, each Cameroon Grasslands village

paid allegiance to a single chief, known as the
Fon

104

As the spiritual
leader, the Fon served as

the main performer in ceremonies
and rituals. He also oversaw the group's secret
societies.

105

how was the Fon selected

He was typically the head of one of the
dominant families in the village and was selected by
his predecessor, in consultation with a. council of elders.

106

quote about the Fon

The Fon was "the sacred representative of the
founding dynasty of his kingdom, the traditional
political leader of his people, and the ideal embodiment
of traditions and values.'

107

__ was a central
illustration of the Fan's status

palace architecture

108

summaarize european control of cameroon

1. germans in 1902
2. british ruled Western
Cameroon under the League of Nations after
World War I
3. After World War II, the region became
a United Nations Trust Territory (still under the
administration of the British)
4. in 1961,
it joined with independent Republic of Cameroon
(formerly French-administered Eastern Cameroon)
to become the Federal Republic of Cameroon

109

While contemporary palaces, such as
the example we will study in depth here, are constructed
in very different ways, using modern materials
and often representing westernized styles,
traditional palaces

were built as a grouping of raffia
pole buildings.

110

historically, cameroon palaces had a clearly marked

entrance
building with a large, public audience hall.

111

movement through cameroon palaces was very controlled --

only high ranking individuals were allowed further
into the building and past the main hall space.

112

Deep in its interior the cameroon palace contained a

royal grave shrine, dedicated to the king's ancestral
line

113

__ was charged with the day to day running of
the palace

The queen mother, or the Fon's first or favorite
wife

114

The cameroon palace would have been bordered
by

a large open square, where the king's subjects
would gather for markets and religious gatherings.

115

Many of the traditional palaces fell into disrepair
over time. why?

Made from highly flammable materials,
they often caught fire and burned to the ground.

116

Most contemporary palaces have succumbed
to the pragmatic benefits of

mud
brick and metal room constructions.

117

The Royal Palace of Foumban is located in

in the
capital city of Bafoussam in the Republic of Carneroon.

118

Royal Palace of Foumban: Today, the palace is the home of

the nineteenth
ruler of the Bamun dynasty, a king whose line extends
back to the fourteenth century.

119

The original Bamun palace complex
was destroyed when?

end of 1910

120

Royal Palace of Foumban: the original building had an __ plan

irregular trapezoid ground plan

121

Royal Palace of Foumban: the original building was made up of a series of __, the basic unit of which was ___

domed, thatched
roof structures,;
a square
room with a domed roof and walls plastered with
clay

122

Royal Palace of Foumban: the original building housed __ people

3,000
people, including the king's 1,200 wives and 350
children.

123

Royal Palace of Foumban: the current building looks a bit like

a medieval
chateau with vaguely Islamic flourishes

124

We will consider Western Africa to include present-day

Senegal, Guinea, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo,
Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon

125

In terms of its geography,
western africa geography region is characterized primarily by

low plains

126

western africa is bordered by ___, while the northern region is a ___

the Atlantic Ocean to
the west and south,
semi-arid transitional zone to the Sahara Desert

127

The peoples of Western Africa, unlike the other areas
we have studied, are not

predominantly Bantu-speaking

128

3 cultures in western africa

asante, ife, kingdom of benin

129

Several
Western African communities fought valiantly to
maintain their independence in the face of European
incursions, but in the end, all but __ would fall

Liberia (with its
strong historical ties to the United States)

130

Much of our understanding of Nok culture is necessarily
speculative b/c

As with several of the ancient
societies we have already examined, the Nok left no
written or oral histories

131

While __ and __
maintained minor strongholds in West Africa, it was
__, and to a lesser degree __, that dominated
the region during the colonial era.

While Portugal and Germany
maintained minor strongholds in West Africa, it was
France, and to a lesser degree England, that dominated
the region during the colonial era.

132

The initial discovery of significant Nok sites occurred
in the 1880s, during the advent of __ in __. For many years prior, British employees of
the __ had been purchasing __ at __

The initial discovery of significant Nok sites occurred
in the 1880s, during the advent of major tin
mining operations in the lowlands south of the Jos
plateau.

For many years prior, British employees of
the Royal Niger Company had been purchasing ingots
of tin at various trading centers in the Benue
Valley.

133

The first intact nok sculpture was discovered in
__ byC__. Young
found a small __ head

The first intact sculpture was discovered in
1928 byColonelJ. Dent Young, co-owner of one of the
mining partnerships established in the area. Young
found a small terracotta head

134

Fagg was central in establishing an
"__" in the area, set aside by the
L__ in 1947. In 1952, he established
a __ in __ focused on __

He was central in establishing an
"archeological reserve" in the area, set aside by the
Lieutenant-Governor's office in 1947. In 1952, he established
a national museum in Jos focused on Nok
material

135

the __
appears to be the cradle of the first important tradition
of figurative sculpture of sub-Saharan Africa

the Republic of Nigeria
appears to be the cradle of the first important tradition
of figurative sculpture of sub-Saharan Africa

136

Nok terracotta figurative statuary was created between
approximately __

1000 BCE and 1000 CE

137

nok terracotta works are generaly __, except for __

generally hollow,
except for some miniature pendant examples.