Flashcards in specific 3 Deck (106):
According to the archeological
record, the Nok flourished from approximately
900 bce to 200 ce
people migrated to the nok region around __ due to __
increasing droughts and the resulting expansion of
inhospitable areas of desert in the north.
unique feature of nok region
annual monsoons that brought abundant water for
seven months out of the year
Nok civilization was
primarily __, though it was in the process of
evolving into a more sophisticated culture, with __
introduced around 400 BCE
The initial discovery of significant Nok sites occurred
how were nok sites discovered?
british were trying to discover the source of tin
came to the nok region in the 1940s as a cadet
administrator of mining operations who also happened
to have training in archeological studies. discovered "Jemaa Head". worked diligently to ensure that miners
who unearthed such objects in the process of their
excavation operations alerted him to other discoveries.
Indeed, he worked with the local population
as he "sought to gain their cooperation in reporting
and preserving any artifact they would find instead
of destroying it by superstition or ignorance."
describe mediums in nok terra cotta sculpture
They are coil-built of local
clays mixed with materials such as rock gravel
to add grit and to strengthen the clay so that it
does not break when exposed to high temperatures
during the firing process
nok sculpture -- The surfaces of
the terracottas were made smooth through the application
a slip of ochre or a solution of decomposed
mica schist before firing
nok figures appear to depict __, as indicated by __
rulers, priests, or other high-ranking individuals;
as indicated by their elaborate hairstyles and costuming,
including ample beaded ornaments
nok figures -- Archeological
evidence suggests that the figures were not
used in a funerary context:
they were not found in
tombs or in conjunction with human remains
nok figures -- were probably used in religious ceremonies, as __
have been discovered in shrines or sacred house
and temple complexes.
artrepro Nok Sculpture: a __ form decorated w/ __
series of reliefs
artrepro Nok Sculpture: depicts what?
series of narrative scenes. images
of mothers with children, as well as activities
of everyday life, such as processing grain, carrying
water, and cooking food.
who owns the Nok Sculpture?
Musee du Quai Branly in Paris
Nok Sculpture: above smaller relief figures, there are __
6 larger characters -- 3 male, 3 female, arms raised, holding a massive snake
4 typical physical characteristics of Nok
stylized eyes and eyebrows, exaggerated
lips and flared nostrils, broad foreheads, and
what does the snake often symbolize in african culture?
A common symbol of fertility and the ancestors in
significance of snake in Nok Sculpture?
the snake's connection to scenes
of agriculture and maternity here may relate the
sculpture to some sort of ritual practice connected
Igbo Ukwu is a region in
describe the name ibgo ukwu
translates to "Great
Igbo" -- a name intended "to distinguish it from other
places of that name.
Based on archeological
evidence at the site, the igbo ukwu area appears to have been
a major center for the Igbo people at one time. The
evidence of wealth indicates its function as the residence
of high-status individuals, possibly the priest
class or the king.
igbo ukwu -- While the site originally functioned
as the heart of Igbo culture, it appears to have been
abandoned suddenly, possibly in the wake of some
the first nok bronze items were discovered by
man, Isaiah Anozie, who was digging a hole in order
to install a water tank on his property
It is believed that the inhabitants of Igbo Ukwu
learned the art of lost wax casting around the [ YEAR ] through __
their contact with the Arab world
to the north
The first bronze sculptures were created [ where? ] during [ when ]?
island of Crete;
first half of the second
early bronze works were generally __ and __
small scale, cast as solid forms
solid casting method (bronze)?
simple mold would be made, typically of clay,
and filled with liquefied bronze
were made as the Greeks developed the lost
wax technique, which allowed for
the creation of
much larger structures
The direct method of lost wax casting begins
the creation of a basic form developed in clay,
often over some sort of structural armature.
lost wax casting: __ is applied over the dried core and __
thin layer of beeswax,
worked to great detail
wax rods that are stuck into the surface of the form in lost wax casting. vents are stuck along with wax rods
the clay outer casing that covers the entire structure in lost wax casting, with the various rods and pins left
to protrude through its surface
after the investment mold thing is done, the object is then
fired, either in a pit or a kiln
why is it called "lost" wax casting?
when fired, The wax melts and runs
out of the form through the gates that have been installed
lost wax casting: role of vents?
help the gasses that are produced
during the firing process escape easily
lost wax casting: role of pins?
hold the entire object stable as a thin negative space
develops in the area formerly occupied by the wax
llost wax casting: after negative space is created,
Molten bronze is now poured into the funnel, filling
this negative space
lost wax casting: after the object has cooled,
investment mold is broken off.
in the indirect method of lost wax casting, the __ are retained, allowing __, unlike the direct method where __
original sculpture and master mold;
the figure to be recast in the future;
the original (wax) form is lost
nok bowl: held by who?
nok bowl: what shape
crescent; half-calabash, slightly pinched at the center
nok bowl: the exterior is covered with
rows of geometric patterns --
and concentric circle designs in low relief
nok bowl: the geometric patterned rows are separated by
raised and dotted lines, in slightly
higher relief than the flattened geometric rows.
nok bowl: the handle appears as
a twisted rope-like form with
three spiral knobs positioned at each end
nok bowl: donated by ?
F. W. Carpenter. Carpenter, who served
as District Commissioner for the Awka region in Nigeria,
visited the site of Igbo Ukwu in 1939. He collected
several items during the visit, offering several,
including this bowl, to the Museum in 1956.
The Ife settlement is __ located in __
city of the Yoruba people; located in southwestern Nigeria
the Ife settlement was most active when?
12 - 15th centuries
describes Ife as the
center of the creation of the world and of humanity.
It is believed that the land upon which the city was
established was created by the god Oduduwa, who
thus became the ancestor of the first Yoruba king.
today Ife is seen as
as the spiritual
center of Yoruba culture.
The king in Yoruba culture
the Oni gains his authority from the fact that
his descent to Oduduwa, the creator of Ife and humankind.
Yoruba tradition says that
a series of crowns to his children, whom he then sent
out into the world to form their own kingdoms.
The king only appeared publicly in Ife
year, for the feasts of Orishanla and of Ogun.
Yoruba -- why king's mouth covered?
yoruba believed that it was
dangerous for the king to open his mouth in public.
Yoruba -- why king's face covered?
Yoruba understood the head to be the repository
of the king's inner power
YOruba -- what was his face covered with?
1. veil of beads
2. woven hair hanging down from crown
3. hold a fly whisk up to mouth
Ife is best known for
highly naturalistic bronze sculpture
Shaw, Willet, Fagg
Igbo, Ife, Nok
connect person to culture
Willett -- Ife
Fagg -- Nok
Shaw -- Igbo
Ife brass head created using ?
lost wax casting technique
ife brass head -- one of the most notable features is
the use of various linear effects and punched holes
across its surface.
ife brass head -- __ visible around the lips of the figure; their purpose?
a series of punctures;
used to anchor a decorative beard
or veil of some sort, probably made of small black
which detail do 12 of the 13 bronze heads discovered in the Yoruba area share?
the features are covered w/ vertical incised markings, which likely reference a facial covering element
ife brass head -- the head has holes in the back of the neck. what does this suggest about its usage?
These were likely used to attach
the bronze to some other object, possibly a carved
wooden body. It is possible that the head would have
been used in procession for some sort of ritual, such
as a funerary rite.
the kingdom of benin's capital location
situated at Edo (now Benin City)
kingdom benin was known was __ in precolonial era
benin -- The Kingdom's
power came through
its military might-the
king could offer protection to neighboring groups
in exchange for tax dollars and access to local natural
benin braonze sculpture made from __ using __
brass; lsost wax casting technique
Yoruba king's inner power
Much Benin bronze work was intended to
decorate oba's palace
British Benin Punitive
Expedition of 1897
During this mission, 1,200
British soldiers, led by Admiral Sir Harry Rawson,
attacked and looted the Kingdom of Benin. This act
was in response to an earlier show of force on the
part of the Eda people.
In 1892 the British Vice-Consul of Oil Rivers Protectorate
visited Benin City and convinced the king
to sign a treaty
abolishing human sacrifice and the
slave trade in the Kingdom
benin city treaty -- Only later did the Oba
realize that the agreement was actually intended to
convert the Kingdom into a colony of Britain.
oba's refusal to honor the treaty,
the British sent various
troops into the area to force his compliance
what was the act of violencec committed by the benin people?
On January 4, 1897, a small group of approximately
250 men, under the leadership of Acting Consul
General James Philips, were attacked by the king's
military and were slaughtered. Only two men survived.
act of violencec committed by the benin people. what did the british do in retaliation?
the British sent troops into Benin
City on February 9th. All of the city was burned
to the ground, and the treasures of the palace were
brought back to England. Many were sold to offset
the cost of the military campaign-acts that today
would be considered theft under international law.
benin bronze plaques -- how were they usually used?
hung on pillars throughout the palace by nails
punched directly through them. Their function was
to serve as courtly decoration, thereby showing the
wealth, power, and character of the king
Benin Bronze Plaque: depicts what?
two musicians and a page holding
a ceremonial sword as they flank a high-ranking
warrior, possibly a war chief or the Oba himself
Benin Bronze Plaque: how is the central figure's improtance shown? (2)
1. very high relief
2. much larger than other figures
asante empire spanned where?
much of present-day central and southern Ghana
asante empire founded by
King (Asantehene) Osei
The Asante economy centered on
trade in gold
describe asante government
with the king supported by a network of chiefs
and advisors who reinforced his power
practice centered on
reverence of the Golden
symbolization of Golden Stool
the main symbol of kingship, which was
believed to have descended from heaven upon Osei
Tutu's assumption of power
Asante were granted independence in __, well
the independent nation of Ghana was established
years of anglo asante wars
1823 to 1900
the name kente cloth comes from the word
kenten, which translates as "basket" in
kente cloth is also often referred to as
kente cloth: The origin legend of this fabric tells of
two hunters from the village of Bonwire who discovered
a spider spinning a web deep in the forest.
After watching the spider closely, the men returned
to their village and produced a weaving of their
kente cloth origin legend: the hunters used _____ to produce their own weaving
black and white raffia fibers
was indeed originally produced by __ and __
weavers in solely __ patterns
black and white
The piece of kente cloth shown in your Art Reproductions
Booklet is held by
in New Jersey
artrepro kente cloth made of
artrepro kente cloth presents typical kente elements, including
its general coloration and design
6 colors of artrepro kente cloth
gold, orange, red, greens,
blues, and black
In America, kente cloth has
been particularly significant
as a symbol of Black
kente cloth -- Additionally, patterns are associated with particular
proverbs and concepts such as
kente cloth color symbolism
maturity, spirituality, Africa
kente cloth color symbolism
kente cloth color symbolism
harvesting, planting, vegetation
kente cloth color symbolism
blood, sacrifice, politics
kente cloth color symbolism
royalty, wealth, status
Kente cloth, like so many of the objects we have
studied, is an important symbol of