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1

According to the archeological
record, the Nok flourished from approximately

900 bce to 200 ce

2

people migrated to the nok region around __ due to __

3000 bce;
increasing droughts and the resulting expansion of
inhospitable areas of desert in the north.

3

unique feature of nok region

annual monsoons that brought abundant water for
seven months out of the year

4

Nok civilization was
primarily __, though it was in the process of
evolving into a more sophisticated culture, with __

n eolithic;
iron
introduced around 400 BCE

5

The initial discovery of significant Nok sites occurred
in the

1880s

6

how were nok sites discovered?

british were trying to discover the source of tin

7

bernard fagg

came to the nok region in the 1940s as a cadet
administrator of mining operations who also happened
to have training in archeological studies. discovered "Jemaa Head". worked diligently to ensure that miners
who unearthed such objects in the process of their
excavation operations alerted him to other discoveries.
Indeed, he worked with the local population
as he "sought to gain their cooperation in reporting
and preserving any artifact they would find instead
of destroying it by superstition or ignorance."

8

describe mediums in nok terra cotta sculpture

They are coil-built of local
clays mixed with materials such as rock gravel
to add grit and to strengthen the clay so that it
does not break when exposed to high temperatures
during the firing process

9

nok sculpture -- The surfaces of
the terracottas were made smooth through the application
of

a slip of ochre or a solution of decomposed
mica schist before firing

10

nok figures appear to depict __, as indicated by __

rulers, priests, or other high-ranking individuals;
as indicated by their elaborate hairstyles and costuming,
including ample beaded ornaments

11

nok figures -- Archeological
evidence suggests that the figures were not
used in a funerary context:

they were not found in
tombs or in conjunction with human remains

12

nok figures -- were probably used in religious ceremonies, as __

they
have been discovered in shrines or sacred house
and temple complexes.

13

artrepro Nok Sculpture: a __ form decorated w/ __

cylindrical;
series of reliefs

14

artrepro Nok Sculpture: depicts what?

series of narrative scenes. images
of mothers with children, as well as activities
of everyday life, such as processing grain, carrying
water, and cooking food.

15

who owns the Nok Sculpture?

Musee du Quai Branly in Paris

16

Nok Sculpture: above smaller relief figures, there are __

6 larger characters -- 3 male, 3 female, arms raised, holding a massive snake

17

4 typical physical characteristics of Nok
characters

stylized eyes and eyebrows, exaggerated
lips and flared nostrils, broad foreheads, and
beaded necklaces.

18

what does the snake often symbolize in african culture?

A common symbol of fertility and the ancestors in
African culture

19

significance of snake in Nok Sculpture?

the snake's connection to scenes
of agriculture and maternity here may relate the
sculpture to some sort of ritual practice connected
to fertility

20

Igbo Ukwu is a region in

eastern nigeria

21

describe the name ibgo ukwu

translates to "Great
Igbo" -- a name intended "to distinguish it from other
places of that name.

22

Based on archeological
evidence at the site, the igbo ukwu area appears to have been

a major center for the Igbo people at one time. The
evidence of wealth indicates its function as the residence
of high-status individuals, possibly the priest
class or the king.

23

igbo ukwu -- While the site originally functioned
as the heart of Igbo culture, it appears to have been

abandoned suddenly, possibly in the wake of some
disaster

24

the first nok bronze items were discovered by

a local
man, Isaiah Anozie, who was digging a hole in order
to install a water tank on his property

25

It is believed that the inhabitants of Igbo Ukwu
learned the art of lost wax casting around the [ YEAR ] through __

9th century;
their contact with the Arab world
to the north

26

The first bronze sculptures were created [ where? ] during [ when ]?

island of Crete;
first half of the second
millennium BCE

27

early bronze works were generally __ and __

small scale, cast as solid forms

28

solid casting method (bronze)?

simple mold would be made, typically of clay,
and filled with liquefied bronze

29

Great advancements
were made as the Greeks developed the lost
wax technique, which allowed for

the creation of
much larger structures

30

The direct method of lost wax casting begins
with

the creation of a basic form developed in clay,
often over some sort of structural armature.

31

lost wax casting: __ is applied over the dried core and __

thin layer of beeswax,
worked to great detail

32

"gates"

wax rods that are stuck into the surface of the form in lost wax casting. vents are stuck along with wax rods

33

investment mold

the clay outer casing that covers the entire structure in lost wax casting, with the various rods and pins left
to protrude through its surface

34

after the investment mold thing is done, the object is then

fired, either in a pit or a kiln

35

why is it called "lost" wax casting?

when fired, The wax melts and runs
out of the form through the gates that have been installed

36

lost wax casting: role of vents?

help the gasses that are produced
during the firing process escape easily

37

lost wax casting: role of pins?

hold the entire object stable as a thin negative space
develops in the area formerly occupied by the wax

38

llost wax casting: after negative space is created,

Molten bronze is now poured into the funnel, filling
this negative space

39

lost wax casting: after the object has cooled,

the
investment mold is broken off.

40

in the indirect method of lost wax casting, the __ are retained, allowing __, unlike the direct method where __

original sculpture and master mold;
the figure to be recast in the future;
the original (wax) form is lost

41

nok bowl: held by who?

british museum

42

nok bowl: what shape

crescent; half-calabash, slightly pinched at the center

43

nok bowl: the exterior is covered with

curving
rows of geometric patterns --
particularly spiral
and concentric circle designs in low relief

44

nok bowl: the geometric patterned rows are separated by

raised and dotted lines, in slightly
higher relief than the flattened geometric rows.

45

nok bowl: the handle appears as

a twisted rope-like form with
three spiral knobs positioned at each end

46

nok bowl: donated by ?

F. W. Carpenter. Carpenter, who served
as District Commissioner for the Awka region in Nigeria,
visited the site of Igbo Ukwu in 1939. He collected
several items during the visit, offering several,
including this bowl, to the Museum in 1956.

47

The Ife settlement is __ located in __

city of the Yoruba people; located in southwestern Nigeria

48

the Ife settlement was most active when?

12 - 15th centuries

49

Yoruba mythology

describes Ife as the
center of the creation of the world and of humanity.
It is believed that the land upon which the city was
established was created by the god Oduduwa, who
thus became the ancestor of the first Yoruba king.

50

today Ife is seen as

as the spiritual
center of Yoruba culture.

51

Oni.

The king in Yoruba culture

52

the Oni gains his authority from the fact that

he traces
his descent to Oduduwa, the creator of Ife and humankind.

53

Yoruba tradition says that

Oduduwa gave
a series of crowns to his children, whom he then sent
out into the world to form their own kingdoms.

54

The king only appeared publicly in Ife

twice a
year, for the feasts of Orishanla and of Ogun.

55

Yoruba -- why king's mouth covered?

yoruba believed that it was
dangerous for the king to open his mouth in public.

56

Yoruba -- why king's face covered?

Yoruba understood the head to be the repository
of the king's inner power

57

YOruba -- what was his face covered with?

1. veil of beads
2. woven hair hanging down from crown
3. hold a fly whisk up to mouth

58

Ife is best known for

highly naturalistic bronze sculpture

59

Shaw, Willet, Fagg

Igbo, Ife, Nok

connect person to culture

Willett -- Ife
Fagg -- Nok
Shaw -- Igbo

60

Ife brass head created using ?

lost wax casting technique

61

ife brass head -- one of the most notable features is

the use of various linear effects and punched holes
across its surface.

62

ife brass head -- __ visible around the lips of the figure; their purpose?

a series of punctures;
used to anchor a decorative beard
or veil of some sort, probably made of small black
glass beads

63

which detail do 12 of the 13 bronze heads discovered in the Yoruba area share?

the features are covered w/ vertical incised markings, which likely reference a facial covering element

64

ife brass head -- the head has holes in the back of the neck. what does this suggest about its usage?

These were likely used to attach
the bronze to some other object, possibly a carved
wooden body. It is possible that the head would have
been used in procession for some sort of ritual, such
as a funerary rite.

65

the kingdom of benin's capital location

situated at Edo (now Benin City)

66

kingdom benin was known was __ in precolonial era

Igodomigodo

67

benin -- The Kingdom's
power came through

its military might-the
king could offer protection to neighboring groups
in exchange for tax dollars and access to local natural
resources.

68

benin braonze sculpture made from __ using __

brass; lsost wax casting technique

69

Ase

Yoruba king's inner power

70

Oba

benin king

71

Much Benin bronze work was intended to

decorate oba's palace

72

British Benin Punitive
Expedition of 1897

During this mission, 1,200
British soldiers, led by Admiral Sir Harry Rawson,
attacked and looted the Kingdom of Benin. This act
was in response to an earlier show of force on the
part of the Eda people.

73

In 1892 the British Vice-Consul of Oil Rivers Protectorate
visited Benin City and convinced the king
to sign a treaty

abolishing human sacrifice and the
slave trade in the Kingdom

74

benin city treaty -- Only later did the Oba
realize that the agreement was actually intended to

convert the Kingdom into a colony of Britain.

75

Upon
oba's refusal to honor the treaty,

the British sent various
troops into the area to force his compliance

76

what was the act of violencec committed by the benin people?

On January 4, 1897, a small group of approximately
250 men, under the leadership of Acting Consul
General James Philips, were attacked by the king's
military and were slaughtered. Only two men survived.

77

act of violencec committed by the benin people. what did the british do in retaliation?

the British sent troops into Benin
City on February 9th. All of the city was burned
to the ground, and the treasures of the palace were
brought back to England. Many were sold to offset
the cost of the military campaign-acts that today
would be considered theft under international law.

78

benin bronze plaques -- how were they usually used?

hung on pillars throughout the palace by nails
punched directly through them. Their function was
to serve as courtly decoration, thereby showing the
wealth, power, and character of the king

79

Benin Bronze Plaque: depicts what?

two musicians and a page holding
a ceremonial sword as they flank a high-ranking
warrior, possibly a war chief or the Oba himself

80

Benin Bronze Plaque: how is the central figure's improtance shown? (2)

1. very high relief
2. much larger than other figures

81

asante empire spanned where?

much of present-day central and southern Ghana

82

asante empire founded by

King (Asantehene) Osei
Tutu

83

The Asante economy centered on

trade in gold
and slaves

84

describe asante government

highly centralized,
with the king supported by a network of chiefs
and advisors who reinforced his power

85

Asante religious
practice centered on

reverence of the Golden
Stool

86

symbolization of Golden Stool

the main symbol of kingship, which was
believed to have descended from heaven upon Osei
Tutu's assumption of power

87

The
Asante were granted independence in __, well
before __

1935;
the independent nation of Ghana was established
in 1957

88

years of anglo asante wars

1823 to 1900

89

the name kente cloth comes from the word

kenten, which translates as "basket" in
Asante

90

kente cloth is also often referred to as

nwentoma, or
woven cloth

91

kente cloth: The origin legend of this fabric tells of

two hunters from the village of Bonwire who discovered
a spider spinning a web deep in the forest.
After watching the spider closely, the men returned
to their village and produced a weaving of their
own

92

kente cloth origin legend: the hunters used _____ to produce their own weaving

black and white raffia fibers

93

Kente cloth
was indeed originally produced by __ and __
weavers in solely __ patterns

asante, ewe

black and white

94

The piece of kente cloth shown in your Art Reproductions
Booklet is held by

Newark Museum
in New Jersey

95

artrepro kente cloth made of

rayon

96

artrepro kente cloth presents typical kente elements, including

its general coloration and design

97

6 colors of artrepro kente cloth

gold, orange, red, greens,
blues, and black

98

In America, kente cloth has
been particularly significant

as a symbol of Black
pride

99

kente cloth -- Additionally, patterns are associated with particular
proverbs and concepts such as

kingship, creativity,
and generosity

100

kente cloth color symbolism

black --

maturity, spirituality, Africa

101

kente cloth color symbolism

blue --

harmony, peace

102

kente cloth color symbolism

green --

harvesting, planting, vegetation

103

kente cloth color symbolism

red --

blood, sacrifice, politics

104

kente cloth color symbolism

gold --

royalty, wealth, status

105

Kente cloth, like so many of the objects we have
studied, is an important symbol of

african kingship

106

Inspired to discover the source of this tin,
expeditions were sent into __, led by
men such as __. The eventual discovery of rich ore deposits
led to the establishment of __, centered on __. Much of this activity occurred
around the village of __.

Inspired to discover the source of this tin,
expeditions were sent into northern Nigeria, led by
men such as the English mining engineer Henry William
Laws. The eventual discovery of rich ore deposits
led to the establishment of a robust tin-smelting
industry in the region, centered on the Shere Hills
of the Jos plateau. Much of this activity occurred
around the village of Nok.