1. Respiratory System Chp 19 (exam 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. Respiratory System Chp 19 (exam 1) Deck (53):
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Functions of respiratory system

Supplies oxygen to cells and removes co2 to produce ATP

1

Ventilation

Movement of air in/out of the lungs

2

External

Exchange of gases between the air and blood (needs to get to the blood from the lungs)

3

Internal

Exchange of gases between blood and cells

4

Cellular

The use of oxygen by cells to produce ATP and release co2

5

Turbinates

Concha lined with pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

6

Functions of nasal cavity

Filters air
Air passageway into body
Warms and moistens air
Chemoreceptors for smell

7

Larynx structures

Thyroid cartilage
Vocal cords
Glottis
Epiglottis
Cricoid

8

Thyroid cartilage

In male it's the Adam's apple

9

Vocal cords

Muscle and elastic fibers that vibrate to cause sounds

Upper is false
Lower is true

10

Glottis

Opening between vocal cords; closes with swallowing to prevent aspiration

11

Epiglottis

Flap like structure that prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing

12

Cricoid

Lowest

13

Smoking

It slows and causes paralysis destroys cili
Causes excess mucous
Causes chronic bronchitis
Coughs
Cancer

14

Functions of larynx

Passageway for air
Prevents food from entering air trachea
Houses vocal cords

15

Trachea

Lined with ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

16

Functions of trachea

Air passageway from larynx to bronchi
Traps particles and move particles to pharynx

17

Bronchial tree

Branched airways from trachea

18

Functions of bronchial tree as a whole

Air passageway from trachea to lungs
Traps particles and moves particles to trachea

19

Rales

Explosive opening of small collapsed airways and alveoli

20

Ronchi

Course rattle excessive secretions of mucous in bronchi

21

Lungs

Soft spongy, cone shaped organs

22

Right side lung

Has 3 lobes

23

Left side of lung

Has 2 lobes

24

What are each lung suspended by?

By primary bronchus and blood vessels

25

Where do these tubes enter through?

The region as the hi-lum

26

Diaphragm contracts

Via the phrenic nerve. Pulls down on visceral organs and the intra-alveolar pressure drops 2mm Hg

27

Surfactant

The moist inner surface of the alveoli is cohesive (produces surface tension)

28

Compliance (distensibility)

Lung expansion ability

29

Elastic recoil

Breathe out

30

Total lung capacity

6 liters

31

Tidal volume

Air entering/leaving (normal in and out breathing)

32

Resting tidal volume

Normal breathing inhalation 500mL

33

Vital capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible

34

Residual volume

Air that remains in the lungs after complete exhalation

35

Physiologic dead space

Anatomic dead space + alveolar dead space

36

Minute ventilation

Tidal volume X breathing rate

37

Non respiratory movements

Cough
Hiccup
Sneeze
Yawning
Laughing
Speech

38

Pons and medulla

Controls respiratory center

39

Ventral respiratory group

Impulses to diaphragm/inspiratory muscles for basic rhythm

40

Dorsal respiratory group

Assist in deep breathing by increasing inspiratory movement

41

Pontine respiratory group

Send impulses to the MRA to increase rate of breathing or slow it

42

Inflation reflex (hering- Breuer)

Stretch receptors in alveoli and bronchioles via vagus to PRG to shorten inspiratory movement

43

Alveolar gas exchange

Occurs between the alveolus and capillaries thru the respiratory membrane via diffusion

44

Alveolar cells

Type 1
Type 2

45

Type 2

Creates surfactant

46

Alveolar pores

Helps with distribution of gases

47

Alveolar macrophages

Protests lungs, die by being swept by mucous

48

Respiratory movement

O2 and co2 diffuse through

49

Oxygen

98% is carried in the blood combined with hemoglobin
2% is absorbed through the skin

50

Carbon dioxide

Metabolic waste from ATP production

51

Carries for carbon dioxide

loosely bound to hemoglobin
Dissolved in the plasma
Formation of bicarbonate (most common)

52

Movement of co2 and o2

Body makes bi-carb. Chemical reaction is reversed in lungs. Co2 is released, o2 is brought in