6. Endocrine System Chp 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Endocrine System Chp 13 Deck (48):
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Intro to endocrine

Includes cells, tissues and organs that secrete hormones which act on target cells

1

Paracrine

Released into the interstitial for local action

2

Autocrine

Affect only the secreting cell

3

Hormone

Biochemical secreted by a cell to affect the function of other cells (or itself) or by means of contact or blood transport to these target cells with specific receptors of proteins or glycoproteins

4

Functions of hormones

Regulate metabolic processes
Control rates of some chemical reactions
Aid in transport through membranes
Regulates water balance
Electrolyte balance
Blood pressure
Reproduction and growth

5

Steroid

Synthesized from cholesterol

Soluble in lipids therefore diffuse into cells to activate genes on DNA to synthesize specific proteins or can inhibit genes

6

Prostaglandins

Nonsteroidal produced in a variety of cells; regulate neighboring cells

7

Actions of steroids

Alter metabolic processes. Go through blood bound to plasma proteins. Diffuse through cell membranes.

8

Hormone receptor complex

Usually combine in nucleus with protein receptor This binds to a particular region of DNA which activate or inhibit genes

9

Control

Three different systems but all employ negative feedback. Hormones have half lives

Hormonal
Nervous
Vascular

10

Hormonal

Hypothalamus stimulates ant. Pituitary: release tropic influencing hormones stimulating other endocrine glands to release

11

Nervous

Nervous system stimulates some endocrine glands directly

12

Vascular

Plasma levels stimulate some endocrine glands directly

13

Pituitary gland

Lies in the sella turcica

14

Somatotropin

Other name: growth hormone
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: stimulates cells to enlarge and rapidly divide

15

Growth hormone

Childhood: if levels are high it's called gigantism
if levels are to low it's called dwarfism

Adult: if levels are high it's called: acromegaly

16

Prolactin hormone

Other name: PRL
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: milk production

17

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Other name: TSH
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: excess levels lead to a goiter

18

Adrenocortiocotropic

Other name: ACTH
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: acts on adrenal cortex

19

Follicle stimulating

Other name: FSH
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: Growth and development of follicles to secrete estrogen and mature eggs/sperm production

20

Luteinizing hormone

Other name: LH
Location: anterior pituitary
Function: Promotes secretion of sex hormones

21

Anti diuretic hormone

Other name: ADH
Location: post pituitary
Function: decrease urine formation and cause vasoconstriction

22

Oxytocin

Other name: OT
Location: post pituitary
Function: smooth muscle contraction

23

Thyroid

Removes Iodine from the blood for producing thyroxine and triiodothyronine which regulate the metabolism of CHO, proteins and fats

24

Thyroxine

Regulates BMR 95%

25

Triiodothyronine

Regulates BMR 5x stronger

26

Calcitonin

Location: thyroid
Function:
lowers blood calcium
Inhibits osteoclasts
Stimulates osteoblasts

27

Graves disease

Autoimmune disease
Antibodies bind to TSH receptors. TSH gets stimulated which leads to over active thyroid. 24/7 will produce thyroid hormones making a goiter

28

Hyperthyroidism

BMR is up. Can't sit down. Low weight. Have a goiter

29

Infantile hypothyroidism

Thyroid is under active in infant
Metabolism slows down
Creatinism
Stunted growth
Mental retardation
Sluggish
Irreversible

30

Adult myxedema (hypothyroid)

Slow. Sluggish. Mental retardation gradually occurs.

31

Goiter

Thyroid enlarges but you are hypothyroid, low iodine levels, providing T3 and T4 but they are junk

32

Parathyroid

(PTH)
Increase blood calcium levels
Stimulates osteoclasts
Inhibits osteoblasts
Decreasing kidney function

33

Adrenal

Medulla sympathetically

34

Epinephrine

Adrenalin
Fight or flight
Increased heart rate, BP, breathing rate, cardiac contraction

35

Norepinephrine

Noradrenalin
Fight or flight

36

Aldosterone

Water retention by conserving sodium ions

37

Renin-angiotensin system

If BP drops the kidneys release renin which decomposes angiotensinogen releasing angiotensin 1. This is converted by ACE into angiotensin 2 which stimulates the release of aldosterone

38

Cortisol

Stimulates glucose from non carbs

39

Gluconeogenesis

Making of glucose from non carbs

40

Glycogenolysis

Converts glycogen into glucose

42

Androgens

Supplement gonads

43

Insulin

1.) glucose into glycogen
2.) inhibits noncho into glucose
3.) facilitate diffusion of glucose into cells
4.) amino acids into cells
5.) increase protein synthesis
6.) adipose synthesis and storage of fats

44

Type 1 diabetes

Juvenile
Insulin, BETA cells are wiped out

45

Type 2 diabetes

40 and older
But now it's overweight.
Progressively loose insulin receptors

Under exercise, over eat, hereditary

46

Melatonin

Location: pineal
Function: part of regulation of circadian rhythms

47

Thymus

Behind the sternum. Thymosins: WBC production and differentiation

48

Glucagon

1.) converts glycogen into glucose
2.) convert noncho into glucose
3.) catabolism fats