9. Digestive System Chp. 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9. Digestive System Chp. 17 Deck (70):
1

Digestive system made up of?

alimentary canal and accessory organs

2

Functions of the digestive system

transport
digestion
absorption
defecation

3

Transport

transport food along the digestive tube

4

digestion

breakdown food (mechanically and chemically) into the respective smallest molecule for absorption

5

absorption

crossing a membrane, transfer digested food first into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph via lacteals of the villi

6

defecation

elimination of undigested residue

7

Mucus membrane (mucosa)

protection, inner lining.

8

Submucosa

Loose CT, glands, blood, and lymph vessels,

9

Plexus

nourishes and transports absorbed materials

10

Muscular layer

smooth muscle, inner circular, outer longitudinal

11

Serous Layer

AKA visceral peritoneum;
protects and lubricates

12

Peristalsis

wave like rhythmic contractions propel food through the alimentary canal

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segmentation

mixing contractions within the tubes

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tongue

muscular organ, aids in swallowing and the process of chewing food, taste receptors

15

Lingual Frenulum

there so one doesn't swallow own tongue

16

Palate

hard and soft with uvula

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teeth

tearing and chewing food (mastication)

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Molars and bicuspids

for grinding

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Canines (cuspids)

tearing

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Incisors

biting

21

Parotid

largest gland. located anterior/inferior to each ear

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submandibular

below the jaw

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sublingual

below the tongue

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Pharynx

Cavity behind the mouth

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Esophagus

transportsfood from the pharynx to the stomach

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Diaphragm

esophageal hiatus

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Stomach

J shaped organ

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Rugae

inner folds that allow the stomach to expand

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Functions of the stomach

receive, mix, start protein digestion, minimal absorption

30

Parts of the stomach

Cardiac region, fundus, body, pylorus

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Cardiac region

near esophagus

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Fundus

upper part of the stomach

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Body

main and largest part of the stomach

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Pylorus

lower narrow portion with sphincter

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Chief cells

(peptic) pepsinogen for protein. on contact with HCL converts to pepsin

36

Parietal cells

HCL and intrinsic factor

37

HCL

destroys bacteria
Activates pepsinogen

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Mucous cells

(goblet) mucous for protection

39

Gastric juice

mucous cells + chief cells + parietal cells = gastric juice

40

Vagal nerve

(para) stimulates gastric juice and gastrin release

41

Acid

in small intestine triggers sympathetics to inhibit gastric juice

42

Cholecystokinin

presence of fats and proteins in the small intestine stimulate the release of cholecystokinin. decreases gastric motility and the release of pancreas juice

43

Chyme

semifluid paste

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First part of the small intestine

Duodenum

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Cholecystokinin (simple terms)

slows down gastric motility
increases pancreatic juice
increase bile

46

Vagal Nerve (simple terms)

Increase gastric juice
Gastrin release

47

Pancreas

Endorcrine and digestive system

48

amylase

starch/glycogen into disaccharides

49

lipase

fats

50

nucleasaes

nucleic acids (dna and rna)

51

insulin

cellular uptake of glucose

52

glucagons

release of glucose from the liver

53

Functions of the Liver

Forms bile
Storage of glucose/glycogen
Deaminating amino acids
Removes toxins from blood
Remove RBC
Forming urea
Amino Acid conversion

54

Bile

emulsifies so lipases can digest the fat molecules

55

gallbladder

stores bile

56

Emulsification

break fat into smaller pieces of fat

57

Small intestine function

absorption and chemical digestion

58

Intestinal villi

finger-like projections

59

Plicae Circulares

Circular folds that increase surface area

60

Chylomicron

fatty acids collected clusters and encased in proteins

61

Proteins breakdown into?

amino acids

62

Fats breakdown into?

fatty acids, glycerols

63

Carbs breakdown into?

monosac.

64

Large intestine parts

cecum
colon
rectum
anal canal with anus

65

cecum

pouch like at beginning of LI

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Colon

Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

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rectum

anterior to sacrum, temp storage for wastes

68

Functions of LI

reabsorption of water, bile, salts
vitamin synthesis
Feces elimination

69

Diverticulosis

the wall weakens and inner mucus membranes protrudes primary from a lack of fiber

70

Feces

undigested/unabsorbed material, water, mucus, bacteria