7. Reproductive Systems Chp 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7. Reproductive Systems Chp 22 Deck (52):
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Testes

Suspended by a spermatic cord (vas deferens)

Descend 6 weeks before birth, pass through the inguinal canal guided by the gubernaculum

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Cryptorchidism

Undescended testes

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Indirect inguinal hernia

25% of males have an open peritoneal pouch allowing for intestinal matter to enter the inguinal canal

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Spermatogenic cells

Baby sperm

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Functions of the testes

Produce sperm cells
Produce testosterone

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Primary sex characteristics

Testicle enlargement
Necessary for reproduction

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Secondary sexual characteristics

For attraction
Lowers voice
Skin thickens
Muscular growth
Growth in height

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Spermatogenesis

Process of producing sperm cells

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Sustentacular

Supporting cells

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M1

Separates homologous chromosome pairs

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Tetrads

Form pairs that exchange segments of DNA (crossover)

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M2

Separates chromatids

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Sperm continuous production

Spermatogonia -> primary spermocytes (46). -> secondary spermocytes (23). -> spermatids (23). -> mature sperm cells

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Epididymis

Sperm maturation. Motility develops

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Vas deferens

Sperm storage (60days)

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Seminal vesicles

Produce fructose, milk alkaline fluid

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Prostate gland

At the base of the urinary bladder. Produces an alkaline solution to neutralize the acidic sperm cell-containing fluid and neutralize the acidic vagina allowing the sperm to become active

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Bilbourethral glands

Produce a mucus secretion. Lubrication for sexual intercourse

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Capacitation

Fertilization potential

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Scrotum

Sac like structure that houses the testes. Contains layer of smooth muscle (dartos) for maintaining proper temperature.

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Penis

Male copulatory organ. Organ used to transfer sperm and urine

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Erection

The increased blood flow compresses the penile veins

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Emission

Is the movement of sperm and secretions are a result of peristaltic contractions of associated smooth muscle

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Ejaculation

As the urethra fills with semen the skeletal muscles at the base of the penis rhythmically contract

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Hypothalamus

Secretes GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone causing

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LH (icsh)

Development of testicular interstitial cells (leydig) which secrete sex hormones (androgens)

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FSH

Stimulate supporting (sustentacular) cells of the seminiferous tubules to respond to testosterone causing spermatogenesis

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Androgens

Primarily the testicles some from the adrenal cortex. Negative feedback to the hypothalamus.

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Purpose of the female repro system

Produce, maintain and transport female sex cells (ova/egg) produce sex hormones

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Ovaries

Held by suspensory ligament attached to uterus by ovarian ligament

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Oogenesis

Producing egg cells (oocytes)

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Zonal pellucida (clear zone)

Glycoprotein layer

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Graafian

Secondary follicles, release it's contents on day 14 under the influence of LH the process is called ovulation

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Zygote

Fertilized egg cell

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Uterine tubes (Fallopian/oviduct)

Transport egg from ovary to uterus.

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Uterus

Fist size organ. Dome topped fundus, upper body and lower cervix. Produces a mucus plug during pregnancy

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Layers of the uterus

Endometrium
Myometrium
Perimetrium

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Endometrium

Inner layer, columnar epithelium, vascular tissues. Provides nourishment to the embryo-> baby

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Myometrium

Middle layer, smooth muscle. "Pops out the baby during labor"

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Perimetrium

Outer layer that covers the uterus

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Vagina

Female copulatory organ. Acidic pH to prevent pathogens

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Labia majora

Enclose and protect the rest of the vulva

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Labia minora

Vascular folds along the vestibule

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Clitoris

Small sensory projection in anterior vulva. Homologous to penis

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Vestibule

Opening to urethra and vagina

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FSH

Ovarian follicle maturation

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LH

Stimulates follicular cells to produce estrogens and progesterones

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Estrogens

At puberty triggers menarche, uterine changes during repro cycle.

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Menstrual cycle

0 (proliferative) --> day 14 (ovulation) --> day 28 (secrete and implant or secretory and menses (progesterone)

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Corpus luteum

Yellow body which no secretes progesterone and estrogens to inhibit FSH and LH. This prevents additional follicle formation and continued ovulation.

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If pregnant:

HCG increases and prevents menses

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If not pregnant:

Corpus luteum degeneration with decreased estrogen and progesterone resulting in menses and eventual elevation of FSH and LH