4. Blood Chp. 14 (exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Functions of blood

transport of food, gases, wastes, hormones
combat infection
body temp. homeostasis
maintain acid-base balance,elctrolytes

1

Color of Arterial blood

Bright Red

2

Color of Venous Blood

Dark red

3

Blood Compositon

Formed elements
Plasma

4

Formed Elements

1.) Hematocrit
2.) Buffy Coat

5

Plasma

fluid part of the blood (about 55%)

6

Hematocrit

% of RBCs found in blood (45%)

7

Buffy coat

wbc and platelets

8

Erythrocytes

AKA red blood cells

9

Characteristics of RBC

biconcave discs
no nucleus
carry hemoglobin
life span of 120 days
stays in blood vessels

10

Functions of RBC

transport oxygen to the cells: oxy & deoxyhemoglobin
transport co2 away from cells

11

RBC produce

hemopoiesis/erythropoiesis

formed in red bone marrow and destroyed in the liver and spleen by macrophages

12

Erythropoietin

Hormone produced by kidneys causing RBC production if o2 levels drop

13

# of RBC

5,000,000/mm3

Nursing:
4.7-6.1 million/mm3

14

anemia

reduction in the ability of the blood to carry oxygen

15

polycythemia

excess number of RBCs in blood

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Why are RBC biconcave shape

makes it possible to transport, really flexible, o2 diffuses out almost instantly

17

Leukocyte

AKA white blood cells

18

Origins of WBC's

Hematopoietic stem cells in response to interleukins
Colony

19

Interleukins

Control WBC differentiating and growth

20

Colony-> stimulating factors

Stimulate lymphocyte production

21

General characteristics of WBC's

Has a nucleus
Larger then RBCs
Fewer in numbers

22

Diapedesis

Ability to squeeze through 'pores' in capillaries

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Ameboid movement

Independent movement in interstitial spaces

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Chemotaxis

Move to or away from chemicals

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Phagocytosis

Cellular eating

26

Functions of WBC's

Fight infections

27

Major types of WBC's

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes
Thrombocytes

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Granulocytes (definition)

Have granules in the cytoplasm formed in the red bone marrow

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Granulocytes contain

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

30

Agranulocytes contain

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

31

Neutrophils

About 65%. Wound healing and bacterial infections. 1st at site and highly moveable

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Eosinophils

About 3% phagocytosis of allergens and parasites

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Basophils

Less then 1%. Inflammation response. Releases heparin and histamine

34

Agranulocytes

Lack granules in the cytoplasm

35

Where are lymphocytes formed?

Formed in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph, nodes, tonsils)

36

Lymphocytes

30%. Immune response, provides immunity

Contain T and B

37

T lymphocytes

Attack antigens directly

38

B lymphocytes

Produce antibodies

39

Monocytes

Bacterial infections, leave bloodstream and differentiate into macrophages. Formed in marrow. And contains lysosomes

40

# of WBC's

5,000-10,000

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Thrombocytes (platelets) characteristics

Cell fragments
No nucleus
Formed in bone marrow
Destroyed in the lymphoid tissue

42

Functions of thrombocytes

Blood clotting

43

Plasma

A.) water (90%)
B.) solute (10%)

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Solutes

Substances dissolved in liquid

45

Outline for solutes (1-8 on next couple slides)

1.)Proteins:primary synthesis in the liver, provides viscosity
a.) albumin: 60%. Osmotic pressure
b.) globulins: alpha and beta are used for transport of lipids
Gamma forms a type of antibody
c.) fibrogen: for clotting

46

2.)Food molecules

a.) glucose
b.) amino acids
c.) lipids: non soluble, with protein forming lipoprotein complexes or carriers

47

Chylomicrons

Fat clusters incased in protein, make way to lactiles (muscles and adipose)

48

VLDL's

-Made in the liver
-takes excess carbs and turns into fats
High levels = to many carbs turning to fat and being deposited

49

LDL's

-transport cholesterol to cells
-to many causes cell walls to get rigid
-raises cholesterol

50

HDL's

-Transport cholesterol to liver for disposal
-lowers cholesterol

51

3.)Gases

a.) oxygen (small amounts)
b.) carbon dioxide (larger amounts)

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4.) Waste products and nonprotein nitrogenous substances

a.) urea from protein catabolism
b.) uric acid from nucleic acid catabolism

53

Plasma outline #5

Hormones

54

Plasma outline #6

Enzymes

55

Plasma outline #7

Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium etc)

56

Plasma outline #8

Antibodies

57

Hemostasis

The stopping or slowing of blood flow through a damaged blood vessel

58

Steps in hemostasis (five steps)

1.) blood vessel spams
2.) platelet plug formation
3.) blood coagulation
4.) clot restriction
5.) clot dissolution

59

1.) Blood vessel spasm

(Vasospasm) decrease blood flow through vessel (constricts)

60

2.) Platelet plug formation

Platelets stick to collagen then each other in damaged area (small tears and holes)

61

3.) Blood coagulation

Clotting; cascade of clotting factors
a.) extrinsic clotting mechanism
b.) intrinsic clotting mechanism

62

Extrinsic clotting mechanism

When blood contacts damaged blood vessel walls or tissues

1.) damaged tissue cells release thromboplastin resulting in prothrombin activator which converts:
2.) prothrombin+CA-> thrombin
3.) thrombin+ fibrinogen+CA -> fibrin
4.) insoluble fibrin threads trap cells + platelets forming a blood clot thrombus

63

Normal tissues are protected by what?

Anti thrombin
Smooth lining
Prostacyclin

64

Intrinsic clotting mechanism

1.) no tissue damage; blood contacts a foreign surface releasing hageman factor.

65

4.) Clot retraction

Fibrin mesh work shrinks

66

5.) clot dissolution

Plasmin dissolves the clot in a few days

67

Thrombus

Abnormal vessel clot

68

Embolus

Free flowing blood clot

69

Hemophilia

Genetic defect in the blood clotting pathway

70

Serum

Blood plasma minus clotting components

71

Simpler form for the steps of hemostasis

Irritation: tissues release -> Thromboplastin -> platelets -> prothrombin activator + [prothrombin and CA] -> thrombin -> [fibrogen and CA] -> fibrin (sticky fibers)

72

Agglutination

The clumping together of RBCs

73

Antigen

Protein found on the surface of RBCs

74

Antibody

Proteins found in blood plasma. Synthesized in the plasma before the 8th month of childhood. Too large to cross the placenta

75

Antigen runs into antibody = ?

Agglutination

76

Antigen A

Produces anti b antibodies

77

Antigen b

Produces anti A antibodies

78

Antigen AB

Produces neither anti a or b

79

Antigen O

Produces anti A, anti B antibodies