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Flashcards in 10-Bone tumors Deck (37)
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1

What are the different patterns of bone destruction? name it increasing malignancy.

geographic
moth-eaten
permeative

2

Describe the geographic pattern of bone destruction.

least destructive, slowly developing, usually benign or low-grade malignancy
*well defined zone of transition that separates the lesion from normal appearing bone

3

What is the most common benign primary bone tumor?

osteochondroma

4

what is the most common malignant primary bone tumor?

multiple myeloma

5

describe the permeative pattern of bone destruction.

most aggressive and rapidly progressive malignant process
*zone of transition is poorly defined and is very wide

6

name the malignant bone tumors of the foot.

chondrosarcoma
osteosarcoma
periosteal sarcoma
ewings sarcoma
fibrosarcoma
multiple myeloma

7

describe the moth-eaten pattern of bone destruction.

is a more rapidly destructive process than geographic; has an intermediate zone of transition that is wide and less well-defined

8

name the benign bone tumors of the foot.

*mnemonic: FOG MACHINES
fibrous dysplasia
osteochondroma
giant cell tumor
myeloma
aneurysmal bone cyst
chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, clear cell
hemangioma
infection
non-ossifying fibroma
eosinophilic granuloma, enchondroma, epidermal inclusion cyst
solitary bone cyst

9

what are the different patterns of periosteal reactions/

single layer- benign but sometimes malignant
onion skin- malignant, multiple layers of periosteum
sunburst- spiculated rays
hair on end- parallel rays
codman triangle- triangular elevation of periosteum

10

what are the most common cancers that metastasize to the foot?

breast, prostate, lung, kidney

11

what bone tumors do not form matrix?

bone cysts
ewings sarcoma
giant cell tumor

12

what primary bone tumors are more frequent in females?

giant cell tumor
ABC (aneurysmal bone cyst)
parosteal osteosarcoma

13

Name some bone tumors that are located in the epiphysis.

chondroblastoma
giant cell tumor (forms in metaphysis though)

14

name some bone tumors found in the metaphysis.

enchondroma (also diaphyseal)
osteochodnroma
non-ossifying fibroma
unicameral bone cyst
aneurysmal bone cyst
giant cell tumor (extends into epiphysis)
medullary osteosarcoma
parosteal osteosarcoma
chondrosarcoma

15

name some bone tumors found in the diaphysis.

osteoid osteoma
osteoblastoma
enchondroma (also metaphyseal)
ewings sarcoma (also meta-diaphysis)
periosteal osteosarcoma

16

name some bone tumors that are centrally located.

enchondroma
unicameral bone cyst

17

name some bone tumors found in the cortex of bone.

osteoid osteoma
non-ossifying fibroma

18

name some bone tumors that are found eccentrically located in the medullary canal.

giant cell tumor
chondrosarcoma
osteosarcoma

19

name some bone tumors that are found in the periosteum.

osteochondroma
periosteal osteosarcoma

20

what are characteristics of an osteoid osteoma?

benign, osteolytic lesion with central nidus (

21

what are characteristics of osteoblastoma?

"giant osteoid osteoma"
-benign tumor that may become malignant
-osteolytic lesion with well-circumscribed nidus (>1.5cm) that may have multiple calcifications
-occurs in 2nd to 3rd decades of life
-less symptomatic than osteoid osteoma, pain not relieved by ASA

22

what are teh characteristics of an enchondroma?

benign, well-defined intramedullary cartilaginous lesion
-painless swelling unless pathologic fracture
-geographic lesions w/ punctate calcified matrix
-occurs in 3rd to 4th decades of life

23

what is Ollier disease?

multiple enchondromatosis
may become malignant
occurs in 1st decade of life

24

what is maffuccis disease?

multiple enchondromas with soft tissue hemangiomas
most become malignant
1st decade of life

25

what are characteristics of a chondroblastoma?

benign, geographic , osteolytic lesion w/ sclerotic margins
occurs in 2nd to 3rd decade of life
pain and joint effusion

26

what are characterisitcs of an osteochondroma?

most common benign primary bone tumor
cartilage-capped, hyperpalstic bone pointing away from the joint
occurs in 2nd to 4th decades of life
suspect malignant transformation with growth after skeletal maturity, pain, or cap >2cm

27

what are the characteristics of a non-ossifying fibroma?

benign CT lesion with fibrous replacement fo bone
expansive, radiolucent, medullary lesions
1st to 2nd decades of life
lesions typically resolve with age
do not biopsy

28

what are characteristics of a fibrous dysplasia?

benign, geographic, fibro-osseous lesion with ground glass matrix
-presents with deformity
-sometimes painful secondary to fracture

29

what are characteristics of a unicameral bone cyst?

benign, geographic, medullary lesion that is fluid-filled
commonly found in calcaneus
occurs in 1st to 2nd decades of life
asymptomatic until fx
fallen fragment sign- pathologic fx in which cortex lies within lesion

30

what are characteristics of an aneurysmal bone cyst?

benign, expansile, lytic lesion with blood-filleld cavities
may extend into soft tissue
fluid-fluid levels seen on MRI
occurs in 1st to 3rd decades of life
more common in females
painful, especially with pathologic fractures