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Flashcards in 1.0 Human Rights Deck (35):
1

Define human rights

HR are fundamental things to which every human being is entitled simply because they are a human being. HR are universal, indivisible, inherent and inalienable. They are recognised at an international level through the Charter of the UN 1945 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948.
There are 3 types of HR:
1.Civil & political (1st. gen)
2. Economic, social & cultural (2nd gen)
3. Collective rights (3rd gen)

2

Universal

enjoyed by all humans regardless of their nationality, gender or race

3

Indivisible

all HR are equally important

4

Inherent

birthright of all humans and to be enjoyed by all

5

Inalienable

They can't be taken away or given up

6

What are the 3 types of HR?

1. Civil & political (1st. gen)
2. Economic, social & cultural (2nd gen)
3. Collective rights (3rd gen)

7

What are civil rights?

rights that enable freedom of expression across a range of issues, freedom of movement

8

What are political rights?

ability to participate in a democracy/gov

9

What are economic rights?

ability to join a trade union and earn an income

10

What are social rights?

to be treated w/o discrimination in all aspects of society, that give security to ppl in a society as they live & learn together

11

What are cultural rights?

ability to practice and follow certain beliefs w/o persecution, assisting in preserving & enjoying one's cultural heritage

12

What are environmental rights?

to live in an enviro w/o fear of suffering life threatening diseases or their future existence

13

What are peace rights?

ability to live in an enviro free from violence, or armed forces/guerilla movements

14

Examples of civil and political rights

to = before the law
to freedom from slavery
of life, liberty & security of a person
to self-determination
to freedom of thought, conscience & religion
to leave & return to one's country
from torture & other inhumane, degarding treatment
freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy, home or correspondence

15

Examples of economic, social & cultural rights

To join & form trade unions- economic
To an adequate standard of living- economic
Social security -social
Participate in cultural life of the community- cultural
Education
Rest & leisure
To earn income & have favourable work conditions

16

What do economic, social & cultural rights usually require?

Government action, eg. to enjoy the highest sustainable standard of physical & mental health, government needs to spend money on health care.

17

Why are many civil & political rights called negative rights?

It involves states refraining from committing actions that would be HR abuses in order to protect those rights

18

what are collective rights?

Rights that belong to a group of people, eg. to self determination,

19

Examples of collective rights

to continued survival of a race of people,
to self-determination (of a people to govern themselves & to choose their own form of government)

20

What is the current status of collective rights?

unclear, but some have been partially recognised in international instruments

21

How are human rights recognised at an international level?

Through the Charter of the UN 1945
and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

22

Name the historical documents that led to a developing recognition of human rights

Magna Carta 1215 and English Common Law
UK Declaration of Rights 1689
US Declaration of Independence 1776
French Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen 1789

23

What was Magna Carta 1215?

Magna Carta 1215 recognised that the King had limited power over individuals, everyone has a right to freedom,

24

What did historical English Common Law establish?

The writ of habeas corpus (people can't be imprisoned w/o good reason and that everyone is entitled to due process of the law

25

When was the UK Declaration of rights?

1689

26

When was the US Declaration of Independence?

1776

27

When was the French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen?

1789

28

What are the 7 main campagins towards recognising HR?

ATSPEED
Abolition of slavery
Trade Unions
Suffrage
Peace rights
Enviro rights
Education
Determination-self

29

How do the 7 campaigns towards recognising HR demonstrate an evolution of the importance and recognition of HR over the past millennium?

They highlight changing values and ethical standards of societies. Mention:
-HR as a western concept
-HR are indivisible
-Collective rights
-National Security

30

What is soft law?

Non-binding law

31

What is hard law?

Legally binding law

32

What are types of hard law?

Treaties

33

What happens when a country ratifies a treaty?

if they have national laws that contradict the treaty, they are obligated to change those laws to comport with the treaty.

34

What is a covenant?

Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with Convention and Treaty. treaties that deal with human rights or other normative principles

35

explain the difference between collective rights and individual rights

A collective right is a right belonging to a group or a people as opposed to an individual right. Eg, self determination. An individual's HR are basic rights and freedoms human beings are entitled to, eg. freedom of speech

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