Flashcards in World Order: Defintitions Deck (31):
defined as the activities and relations between nations and significant non-state praties that take place under a legal and economic framework.
Need for world order
anarchy - global destruction (unrestricted nuclear weapons)
- couldn't address world issues -
-globalisation and economic development halted
- need it even more as population increases and nations more independent or each other for resources.
- Ever increasing need to achieve a stable WO so countries can continue to better their economies and outcomes for ppl and aren't implicated by conflict.
WO is an evolving concept because?
WO is currently changing as new conflicts emerges and new actions are taken to address them. Also new values and morals emerge
Treaty of Westphalia
1648 (notion of SS emerged + need for multilateral approach to end conflict)
Concert of Europe following the Napoleonic wars
1815 borders couldn't be changed w/o membership consultation. Increased coop btw European states helping to prevent future conflict.
Following horrors of WWI, nations recognised need to have international body that could encourage nations to dissolve disputes peacefully. This was reflected in the
Treaty of Versailles to end WWI, establishing the League of Nations in 1919, promoting peace and international security
League of nations a failure bc
didn't prevent outbreak of WWII, through its flawed and overly punitive Treaty of Versailles with Germany (1919) and lacked necessary legal framework and political will from nation states.
1941 by Roosevelt and Churchill (states couldn't seek new territory after WWII and should cooperate to attain better conditions for their people and economic advancemcent as well as reaffirming that conflict is last resort for dispute resolution. Recognised need to internatonal association of nation states to be developed.
UN Charter 1945
most significant advances in achieving a stable WO
Article 1.1 to promote global peace and security.
Since UN est. following UN Charter 1945, it has enabled creation of many
internatonal documents that further promote a stable and peaceful WO, eg Geneva Conventions of 1949.
What established the rules of war?
Geneva Conventions of 1949.
What were the subsequent protocols of the Geneva Conventions 1949?
the 1977 Additional Protocols outlined the humane treatment of those involved in conflict.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
1968 prohibited states from manufacturing or aquiring nuclear weapons, promoting nuclear disarmament was a massive advancement in the plight for WO.
Outline evolving nature of WO.
due to responding to new conflicts. Current WO significantly shaped bc of its evolving nature.
Expansionism of nations has remained a significant part of WO, esp European expansionism in 17th century where many colonies were established, resulting in many intrastate conflicts and killing of many Indigenous peoples.
actions intended to cause death/injury with intent of persuading a governemtn to do/not do something
INTERSTATE: Country/Nation Combat Conflict Together
state of uneasy peace btw nations
Within The Country Conflict
Wars waged by governments against its ppl (genocide, mass killings)
For more traditional warfare, implications for achieving world order some respects less sever bc
exists large body of international law to govern behaviours of nation states in these conflcits.
-->Geneva Conventions 1949 +1977 Additional Protocol
Despite IHL to protect HR of all incl those in conflict, due to principle of SS
there's little international law to govern civil conflcits
Civil warfare is the
largest source of conflict today resulting in many refugees which can increase the strain on WO. A lack of sufficient/effective law to deal with this conflict remains a significant inhibitor to plight for WO.
GC 1949 and 1997 AP were designed for conventional warfare and are thus illequipped to govern civil conflicts.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Limited Test Ban Treaty (btw US and USSR)
Close governance of nuclear weapons states by the
UN has also been effective in controlling the implications of nuclear warfare
Cyberwarfare has become a prominent form
of warfare in recent years. Bc it can occur outside of target countries and be committed quite anonymously, it remains difficutl to mitigate the threats it poses to WO.
A lack of significant domestic and international responses was highlighted by
the 4 Corners episode Cyber War 2016, conveying vulnerabitliy of important infrastructure systems as well as confidentionaal data to hacking.
Cyber warfare also has the potentional to make vulnerable the political processes of nations through manipulation as demonstrated in article
"Russian agents hacked US voting system manufacturer before US election – report " The Guardian 2017
One of most current and prominent thrats to WO is
terrorism, After September 11 2001 bombings in US it became evident even major super powers are vulnerable to this conflict.
terrorism by definition involves the use of force to
cause detah/injury by small extremist groups. It consequently remains extremely challenging for more traditional, non violent methods of resolving disptues to be utitlised.
Issue with combating terrorist groups
they do not abide by IHL nor are they recognised as sovereign states, making it extremely dificlt to mitigate it as a threat to WO. q