11-1-13 developmental Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11-1-13 developmental Deck (33):
1

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
-match to term
fertilized egg, after nuclear fusion

zygote

2

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
-match to term
first 2 weeks; zygote, 2-8 cell stages, morula, blastocyst.

B)Pre-embryonic stages

3

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
developing organism from 2-8 wks

embryo

4

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
developing organism from 9wk-birth

fetus

5

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
embryo or fetus + all surrounding membranes derived from zygote

conceptus

6

A)zygote
B)Pre-embryonic stages
C)Embryo
D)Fetus:
E)Conceptus:
F)Trimester
one third of the human gestational period; not related to developmental stages.

trimester

7

(migration/induction ) is growth

induction

8

(induction/migration) differential growth

migration

9

(epithelial folding/cavitation) is selective cell death

epithelial folding

10

(epithelial folding/cavitation) is cell differentiation

cavitation

11

(hyperplasia/hypertrophy) is increase in cell size

hypertrophy

12

(hyperplasia/hypertrophy) is increase is cell number

hyperplasia

13

TGF and EGF increase cell (number/size)

number

14

(induction/differential growth)One side or part of a structure grows faster than another. This is a major mechanism which allows organs to reach their ultimate shape.

differential growth

15

(induction/differental growth) A chemical signal will cause a change in cells, resulting in migration, differentiation, or other change.
Chemical can be a surface signaling molecule or some chemical released into the extracellular matrix.
It influences the genome to differentiate in any of a number of varied ways.

induction

16

(endoderm/ectoderm) forms lens

ectoderm

17

cell in the nucelus are activated then they are under (determination/restriciton)

determination

18

cell that is inactived is under (determination/restriction)

restriction

19

(hyperplasia/metaplasia) is a pathologic de-differentiation and re-differentation

metaplasia

20

give an example of differntiation (lens/skin)

skin

21

give an example of selective cell death (hand/brain/lens/skin) pick two

hand , brain

22

affected cells are programmed to undergo apoptosis by spefice ____

genes

23

Physical movement of cells from one location to another. Usually involving amoeboid movement and chemotaxis towards or away from specific developmental factors.
Can involve only a part of the cell in cases of nerve axons.
--describe (migration/induction)

migration

24

somite is a example of (selective cell death/migration)

migration

25

Diffusable molecules that are released locally; react with cells to govern pattern of development.

match to correct term
A)morphogen
B)notch
C)transcription factors
D)receptor tyrosine kinases

morphogens

26

conserved intercellular signaling pathway directing multiple cell differentiation paths.

match to correct term
A)morphogen
B)notch
C)transcription factors
D)receptor tyrosine kinases

notch

27

Binds to DNA. Many are Homeobox or HLH families

match to correct term
A)morphogen
B)notch
C)transcription factors
D)receptor tyrosine kinases

transcripton factors

28

Cell-surface receptors, includes growth factors which regulate cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, new growth
match to correct term
A)morphogen
B)notch
C)transcription factors
D)receptor tyrosine kinases

receptor tyrosine kinsases

29

often involved in fine-tuning interactions of other developmental factors

A)retinoic acid
B)transforming growth factor B
C)bone morphogenic proteins
D)WNT
E)bone morphogenic proteins

retinoic acid

30

promotes cell growth and differentiation; uses SMAD pathway.

A)retinoic acid
B)transforming growth factor B
C)bone morphogenic proteins
D)WNT
E)bone morphogenic proteins

transforming growth factor Beta

31

one of the pivotal developmental signaling molecules.


A)retinoic acid
B)transforming growth factor B
C)bone morphogenic proteins
D)WNT
E)bone morphogenic proteins

bone morphogenic proteins

32

critical developmental gene requires cholesterol to become active.
A)retinoic acid
B)transforming growth factor B
C)bone morphogenic proteins
D)WNT
E)bone morphogenic proteins

hedgehog series

33

Critical in pattern development and axis patterning among other things, it uses β-catenin to activate gene sequences.
A)retinoic acid
B)transforming growth factor B
C)bone morphogenic proteins
D)WNT
E)bone morphogenic proteins

WNT