Cell Structure and Function 1,2,3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Structure and Function 1,2,3 Deck (67):
1

(histology/ cytology)The anatomical study of the microscopic structure of tissues

histology

2

(histology/ cytology)The study of the structure and function of cells

Cytology

3

Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction Detects (glycogen/phophate)

glycogen

4

Acid Phosphatase Reaction Detects (Phosphatase/Kinase) Enzyme Activity

phosphatase

5

(Light/electron)Live cells may be examined in a culture dish, but more typically tissues are fixed, sectioned(typically 5-50 micron thick slices), and stained.

light

6

(Light/electron)Includes bright field, phase contrast, polarized, dark-field, fluorescent, and confocal microscopy.

light

7

T/f the most common stain is hemotoxylin eosin stain

T

8

(Hemotoxylin/Eosin) is a basic stain that is deep purple in color; it stains heterochromatin and
nucleoli in the nucleus, and ribosomal RNA. Such structures are said to be (basophilic/eosinophilic)

hemotoxylin , basophilic

9

(Hemotoxylin/Eosin)is an acidic stain that is usually pink to red in color; it stains cytoplasm. Suchstructures are said to be eosinophilic or (acidophilic/basophilic)

eosin, acidophilic

10

(Light/electron) travel in wavelengths of approximately 1/2,000 that of visible light

electron

11

T/F electron microscopy facilitates a more detailed analysis of the morphology of cellular components.

T

12

T/F Typically, the specimens in electron microscopy are stained with heavy metals that can absorb or deflect the electron beam.

T

13

(Scanning electron microscopy/Transmitting electron microscopy/Freeze-fracturing) a beam of electrons is passed through the
specimen (similar to bright field microscopy) and only some of the electrons pass through the specimen to the detector, the rest are either absorbed or scattered by different cellular components.

(Scanning electron microscopy

14

(Scanning electron microscopy/Transmitting electron microscopy/Freeze-fracturing) a beam of electrons is passed across the surface of the specimen and electrons that are deflected by or emitted from the specimen are detected by the detector.

Transmitting electron microscopy

15

(Scanning electron microscopy/Transmitting electron microscopy/Freeze-fracturing) is a process of sample preparation that uses extreme cold temperature and striking the specimen instead of slicing prescribed thickness sections through the specimen. Fracture planes follow the hydrophobic region within lipid bilayers, revealing the interior of the plasma membrane.

Freeze-fracturing

16

Freeze fracturing , fracture planes and follow the hydrophobic region within lipid bilayers, revealing the (outer/interior) of the plasma membrane

interior

17

A. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining
B. Enzyme histochemistry
C. Immunohistochemical staining
detects carbohydrates by replacing the -OH groups onadjacent carbons on the hexose ring with aldehydes (=O).The aldehyde groups react withSchiff’s reagent [F(SO4H)2] turning it a deep magenta color.

A. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining

18

A. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining
B. Enzyme histochemistry
C. Immunohistochemical staining
uses stains that are activated or change color when cleaved by aparticular enzyme to detect the presence of that enzyme

B. Enzyme histochemistry

19

A. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining
B. Enzyme histochemistry
C. Immunohistochemical staining
uses dyes bound to antibodies to detect the presence of specific antigens on and within cells.

C. Immunohistochemical staining

20

Acid Phosphatase reaction detects the presence and activity of ______

phosphatase enzymes

21

When phophatases hydrolyze phosphate esters create an (phosphate/ester/methyl/alcohol) pick two

alcohol, phosphate

22

In a acid phosphatase reaction, phosphatase enzymes are detected by binding lead and then sulfide creating an insoluble (black/red/white) precipitate

black

23

A. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining
B. Enzyme histochemistr
C. Immunohistochemical staining
-uses dyes bound to antibodies to detect the presence of specific antigens on and within cells.

C. Immunohistochemical staining

24

T/F all the organs of thehuman body are composed entirely of 4 types of tissues

T

25

1. Epithelium
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue
-Covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms glands. _ are connected to one another to form a continuous sheet.

Epithelium

26

1. Epithelium
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue
-Cells secrete an extracellular matrix; unlike epithelium, cells of _ are generally not in direct contact with one another

Connective tissue

27

1. Epithelium
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue
-Cells contain the contractile proteins actin and myosin. _ can be subdivided into 3 types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.

Muscle tissue

28

1. Epithelium
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue
- Consists of neurons and associated support cells.

Nervous tissue

29

a. Connective tissue propper
b. Bone matrix
c. Cartilage
d. Blood
The matrix is composed of collagen and possibly elastic tissue.The cells that secrete the matrix are called fibroblasts.

a. Connective tissue propper

30

Adipose tissue is a type of ____ whose cells, called apdipocytes, specialize in teh storage of trigylcerides
1. Epithelium
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue

2. Connective tissue

31

a. Connective tissue propper
b. Bone matrix
c. Cartilage
d. Blood
matrix is composed of collagen and calcium, and is secreted by osteoblasts.

bone

32

a. Connective tissue propper
b. Bone matrix
c. Cartilage
d. Blood
matrix is composed of collagen and hyaluronic acid, and is secreted by
chondrocytes.

cartilage

33

a. Connective tissue propper
b. Bone matrix
c. Cartilage
d. Blood
includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes. The “matrix” of blood is plasma.

blood

34

T/FCells consist of a cytoplasmic matrix surrounded by a plasma membrane (plasmalemma), and supported by the cytoskeleton.

T

35

T/F Membranes allow cells to function by creating a barrier between the cell and its surrounding environment and by partitioning parts of the interior of the cell, enabling them to be physically and chemically distinct.

T

36

Membrane protiens have a polar (tail/head) and a uncharged hydrophobic (tail/head)

head, tail

37

Which part of the lipid bilayer faces the aqueous environment?

head

38

the lipid bilayer is approximately __ nm thick
a-7
b-8
c-9

7

39

The lipid bilayer is approximately 7 nm thick; too small to visualize with a light microscope, however membranes (can/can not) be inferred at the borders of structures that are visible

can

40

In electron microscopy, heavy metals coat the hydrophilic heads and so the lipid bilayer appears as (two/three) lines separated by approximately 3 nm.

two

41

Membrane proteins can function as what three things?

transporters , receptors, structural anchors

42

Membrane proteins that span the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer are said to be
(integral membrane proteins/peripheral proteins.)

integral membrane proteins

43

while proteins that bind to the hydrophilic heads of the membrane lipids are called (peripheral proteins/(integral membrane proteins)

peripheral proteins

44

Glycolipids and glycoproteins are membrane components that have been modified by the addition of (sugars/phosphates/esters)

sugars

45

T/F The carbohydrates that extend from the extracellular surface of the membrane form the glycocalyx of the cell.

T

46

T/F Cholesterol is also incorporated into the plasma membrane. It alters the properties of the membrane and can create islands of decreased fluidity where proteins may be anchored.

T

47

a. Nucleus
b. Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
c. Golgi apparatus
d. Endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vesicles
e. Mitochondria
-all of these can be surrounded by what?

lipid bilayer

48

1. nuclear envelope
2. nuclear pores

nucleus is surrounded by

nuclear envelope

49

Nuclear envelope is a ___ lipid bilayer membrane

double

50

the outer lipid bilayer membrane is continuous with the (RER/lamins)

RER

51

T/F Inner surface of the nuclear envelop is lined with lamins that bind the membrane and provide structural support

T

52

(phosphorylation/dephosphoylation)_ of lamins causes breakdown of nuclear envelope during mitosis

phosphoylation

53

(F/G) is a globular soluble monomer when polymerized intot double stranded helical filments it is called(f/G) actin with a - and + end

G, F

54

(f actin/myosin) is the more compontent of the movement function

myosin

55

cilia an dflagella have structure called (actin/axoneme)

axoneme

56

axonme is composed of (13/9) microtuble doublets surrounding two central microtubulules

9

57

(tubulin dimers/axoneme) consist of alpha and beta tubulin and each cylinder has (13/9) parallel protfilaments

tubulin dimers, 13

58

ribosomes are (acidophilic/basophilic)

basophilic

59

(G1/S/G2) cell grows syntehsize protein needed for DNA synthesis

G1

60

(G1/S/G2) cell duplicates is DNA

s

61

(G1/S/G2) repairs any DNA damage

G2

62

G1,S,G2 are all in the (interphase/prophase)

interphase

63

(prophase/interphase/metaphase/anaphase/telophase) chromosome condense nuclear envelope disappears

prophase

64

(prometaphase/metaphaseproper/anaphase/telophase) chromosomes align on metaphase plate

prometaphase

65

(prometaphase/metaphaseproper/anaphase/telophase) centromeres break down

metaphase proper

66

(prophase/interphase/metaphase/anaphase/telophase) chromatids are pulled toward the MOTs at opposit poles of the cell

anaphase

67

(prophase/interphase/metaphase/anaphase/telophase) nuclear envelops reforms chromosomes decondense

telophase