Carbohydrate 11-4-13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrate 11-4-13 Deck (40):
1

(sucrose/lactose/maltose/isomaltose)
glucose + fructose (table sugar)

sucrose

2

(sucrose/lactose/maltose/isomaltose)
-galactose + glucose (milk & dairy products)

lactose

3

(sucrose/lactose/maltose/isomaltose)
glucose + glucose

maltose, and isomaltose

4

monosaccharide has (4/5) asymmetic carbons

4

5

(D/L) enantiomer is when asymmetric C
farthest from carbonyl has OH on left

L

6

(D/L) enantiomer is when asymmetric C
farthest from carbonyl has OH on right

D

7

(epimers/enantiomers)different configuration around a single asymmetric carbon

epimers

8

what is a asymmetic carbon ?

has different chemical groups

9

(amylose/amylopectin) unbranched a(1,4) bonds between glucose

amylose

10

(amylose/amylopectin) branched, a(1,4) & a(1,6) bonds between glucose

amyloptectin

11

Both starch and glucogen have (D/L) glucose polymrs

D

12

hihgly branched molecule (increases/decrease) solubility

increases

13

Cellulose uses (beta/alpha)glycosidic bonds

beta

14

why is cellulose not digestible for human enzymes?

because they have beta glyosidic bonds

15

(mehcanical/chemical)cleavage of glycosidic bonds by glycosidases

chemical

16

(mehcanical/chemical) chewing & mixing of foods

mechanical

17

both salivary and pancreatic digestion uses (alpha-amylase/amylose)

alpha-amylase

18

(alpha-amylase/brush order disaccharidases in intesinal mucosa) cleave glucose a(1,6) glucose bonds

brush order disaccharidases

19

(alpha-amylase/brush order disaccharidases) cleaves glucose a(1,4) glucose bonds only

alpha-amylase

20

name the three sugars that are taken up and distributes to organs and into cells--

glucose, fructose, galactose

21

(brush border/ brush border disaccharidases) lumenal surface of intestinal mucosal cells

brush border

22

name the 4 properties of monosaccharide transporters

-specificity
-affinity
-capacity
-hormonal regulation

23

T/F Tissue-specific distribution of transporters reflects physiological needs of organ/ tissue for glucose utilization

T

24

-basal glucose uptake
-insulin-dependent uptake
-high-capacity glucose uptake
-Na+-dependent cotransporters

(constant supply @ both high & low blood glucose)

basal glucose uptake

25

-basal glucose uptake
-insulin-dependent uptake
-high-capacity glucose uptake
-Na+-dependent cotransporters

(important in fed state during insulin signaling to lower blood glucose levels)

-insulin-dependent uptake

26

-basal glucose uptake
-insulin-dependent uptake
-high-capacity glucose uptake
-Na+-dependent cotransporters

to equilibrate intracellular with blood glucose levels in fed state in glucose-sensing organs

-high-capacity glucose uptake

27

-basal glucose uptake
-insulin-dependent uptake
-high-capacity glucose uptake
-Na+-dependent cotransporters

(ATP required) for complete absorption of glucose from GI to circulation (low glu=> high glu)

-Na+-dependent cotransporters

28

liver and ___- are glucose sensor

pancreas

29

(Na+/K+) is the dependent co-transporter, important for absoption of glucose in SI

NA+

30

3 Na+ OUT & (3/2) K+ IN
--Na+/K+ ATPase

2

31

3 Na+ (OUT/IN) & 2 K+ (IN/OUT)

out, in

32

GLUT (2/3/1/4)
1))Sensors of blood glucose levels
2) Signal for FED state

GLUT 2

33

GLUT (2/3/1/4)
1)Preferential uptake in FED state
2) Return blood glucose levels to normal

GLUT 4

34

GLUT (2/3/1/4)
Continuous uptake (FED & FASTING)
Uptake @ low [blood glucose]

GLUT 3,1

35

T/F
SGLUT1
Glucose, galactose co-transporter with Na+ (same direction); Uptake of sugar from lumen of SI against gradient

T

36

Targeting GLUT (1/3) inhibits BTIC growth and tumorigenic potential

Glut 3

37

Due to genetic defect (inherited)
- Primary deficiency
- Permanent effect (irreversible)
- Early onset (infancy or childhood)
is (congenital/acquired)

congenital

38

- Due to disease, injury or medication
- Secondary deficiency
- Transient/ temporary loss of activity (reversible)
- Adult onset
is (congenital/acquired)

acquired

39

(normal/deficient) > 1.7 mmol/L (30 mg/dL)
(normal/deficient) < 1.1 mmol/L (20 mg/dL)

normal, deficient

40

T/F lactase deficeincy can only be congenital

F can be congenital , or secondray due to intestinal disease