Flashcards in 112-NBC Deck (92):
What does NATO stand for?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
What color is the NBC chemical marker?
Yellow background with red text
What color is the NBC biological marker?
Blue background with red text
What color is the NBC radiological marker?
White background with black text "ATOM"
What color is the NBC chemical minefield marker?
Red background with yellow text "Gas Mines" and stripe
What shape are the NBC contamination markers?
Right isosceles triangle 90/45/45 11x8"
What does the M40 FPM consist of?
Faceblank, filter canister, dual voicemitter assemblies, inlet/outlet valves and water drinking system
How is an NBC attack expressed vocally?
How is an NBC attack expressed visually?
Arms extended, fist to ears 3 times as the word GAS is said
How is an NBC attack expressed by percussion?
Metal on metal, metal triangles, sirens, intermittent horns
Where should your rifle be placed when donning a FPM?
Where should headgear be placed when donning FPM?
What piece should be covered on the FPM to clear it?
The outlet valve
The M40 FPM is designed to protect the wearer from what 2 things?
Field concentrations of chemical and biological agents
The FPM should be donned, cleared, and sealed within what time frame?
9 Seconds + 6 Sec to put hood in place
What lead to the concept of MOPP?
The need to balance protection with the threat, temperature, and urgency of the mission
Commanders can adjust the MOPP protection through how many levels?
What is "MOPP ready"?
When mask is carried
What is MOPP level 0?
MOPP gear available but not warn
How long does it take to use M256A1
Approximately 15 minutes
What advantage does M256A1 have over M8 and M9?
Can detect a greater number of agents to include vapor hazards
How many rolls of M9 tape are issued to a squad?
Where is M9 tape worn?
Ankles, wrists and biceps outside protective clothing
What is the purpose of M9 tape?
Detect presence of chemical agents but not identify it
What is M9 tape is primarily used on?
Barely visible drops
What color will M9 tape turn once in contact with contamination?
Light pink, reddish brown or violet tint
What is M8 paper primarily used on?
Suspected liquid forms
How much M8 paper should be used to test liquid?
Half sheet if perforated
What can some decontaminants produce on M8 paper?
What are the 3 levels of decontamination?
Immediate, operational, thorough
What are the 3 immediate decon techniques?
Skin decon, personnel wipe down, operators spray down
What are the 2 operational decon techniques?
Vehicle wash down, MOPP gear exchange
What are the 3 thorough decon techniques?
Detailed troop, detailed equipment, detailed aircraft
During a nuclear attack one should lay down with the head in what direction?
Toward the blast
During a nuclear attack one should lay face down for how long?
90 Seconds or until debris has stopped falling
What are the physical characteristics of nerve agents?
Odorless, almost colorless liquids, varying greatly in viscosity and volatility
Nerve agents can penetrate cloth in what form?
Liquid or vapor
What material is resistant to nerve agents?
Butyl rubber and synthetics such as polyester
What do nerve agents inhibit?
Normal transmission of nerve impulses in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system
Nerve agent reaction with cholinesterase tends to be __________?
When will nerve agents cause the pupils to constrict?
When intoxicated by vapor
When will nerve agents cause local muscular twitching?
Exposure to skin
Nerve agent antidotes should not be given for what purpose?
Service members are issued how many 2mg atropine auto injectors?
Service members are issued how many 600mg 2-PAM CL auto injectors?
Atropine should be administered how frequently?
Every 15 minute until atropinization occurs (noted by tachycardia and dry mouth)
What will Atropine alone not relieve?
Respiratory muscle failure
Pralidoxime chloride is used to regenerate what?
Atropine should be held firmly at the injection site for at least how long?
Nonmedical personnel may give how many sets of 2-PAM CL?
Three at 15 minute intervals PRN
What are the three common blister agents?
Mustard (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN), Lewisite (L)
When do mustards manifest symptoms?
Several hours after exposure
What do mustards attack?
Eyes, respiratory tract, skin
Treatment for mustard?
None (supportive in nature)
What are the physical characteristics of mustard (blister) agents?
Oily, colorless, or pale yellow liquids, sparingly soluble in water. HN less volatile and more persistent than HD
Photophobia is caused by what agent?
Mustard causes blistering in what time frame?
Lewisite is an ________________?
What are the physical characteristics of Lewisite?
Light to dark brown liquid that vaporizes quickly
When does a lewisite cause intense pain?
A 30% solution of sodium sulfacetamide may be used within 24hrs to combat what?
Eye infection caused by Lewisite
When is British Anti-Lewisite indicated?
Systemic involvement of Lewisite
What is available in a peanut oil suspension for injection?
Greater than 3mg of BAL will cause what?
What do blood agents interfere with?
Enzyme functions i.e. block oxygen transfer
What is the blood agent AC?
What is the blood agent CK?
When are blood agents in a gaseous state?
Normal temperatures and pressures
When do violent convulsions occur after exposure to blood agents?
What are the 2 suggested antidotes for blood agents?
Amyl nitrite, sodium thiosulfate
What odor is associated with blood agents?
How is amyl nitrite used?
2 ampules crushed in hand and held at victims nose (repeated up to 8 ampules)
How is sodium thiosulfate administered?
100-200 mg/kg IV over 9 minutes (speed is key)
State four choking agents:
Phosgene (CG) - most common, Chlorine (CL), Chloropicrin, Diphosgene
What are the physical characteristics of choking agents?
Colorless gas, smells like new mown hay or cut grass
When exposed to a choking agent there may be no symptoms for up to how long?
What is the treatment for choking agents?
Complete bed rest
Incapacitating agents are mainly comprised of what?
How are incapacitating agents administered?
Contaminating food/water, released as aerosols
How soon do the first symptoms appear when exposed to incapacitating agents?
30 minutes to several hours
What is the standard incapacitant in the US?
3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ)
What is the drug of choice for incapacitating agents?
Physostigmine (results show in 4 hours but must be continued)
What are two categories of harassing agents?
What are two types of tear gas?
Chloracetophenone (CN), orthochlorobenzilidine malanonitrile (CS) -more potent
What are the 3 principle vomiting agents?
Adamsite (DM), diphenylchloroarsine (DA), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)
How are vomiting agents released?
What are S/S of vomiting agents?
Strong pepper-like irritation in upper respiratory tract. Burning in nose/throat, hypersalivation, headache
Why do victims of vomiting agents tend to remove their mask?
Symptoms increase for several minutes in spite of adequate protection
How should duties be carried out when exposed to vomiting agents?
As vigorously as possible
What first aid is given for vomiting agents?
Wash and rinse with water, mild analgesic may be given for headache (recovery within 1-3 hrs)
What are the characteristics of white phosphorus (WP)?
Pale, waxy solid that ignites on contact with air which gives off a hot dense smoke composed of phosphorus pentoxide particles