13.2, 15.1, 15.2, 16.1 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > 13.2, 15.1, 15.2, 16.1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 13.2, 15.1, 15.2, 16.1 Deck (73):
1

evaporation

vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling

2

boiling

vaporization throughout the liquid when vapor pressure is equal to the outside pressure

3

boiling point

the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid

4

normal boiling point

the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa or 1atm

5

solvation

a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves

6

what happens when things dissolve in a solution

solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions

7

vapor pressure

a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid in a sealed container
a dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid

8

surface tension

an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin

9

solution

a homogeneous mixture, consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent

10

solvent

the dissolving medium in a solution

11

solute

dissolved particles in a solution

12

soluble

tendency to dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature and presssure

13

insoluble

tendency not to dissolve

14

diple

a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite charges

15

miscible

describes liquids that dissolve in one another in all proportions

16

immiscible

describes liquids that are insoluble in one another

17

example of immiscible

oil and water

18

saturated

maximum amount of solution

19

unsaturated

less than maximum amount of solution

20

supersaturated

more solute than it can hold at a given temperature

21

two biggest differences between a liquid and a gas

the particles are farther apart in a liquid
intermolecular forces important in a liquid, negligible in a gas

22

what happens to a liquid as it evaporates

average kinetic energy goes up, intermolecular forces are broken from the surface and some particles turn into a gas

23

what happens to the temperature of a liquid as it evaporates

it goes down

24

what affects the rate of evaporation? How and why?

heating speeds it up because the kinetic energy of the particles increases

25

in a closed container, what is going on between the liquid and the vapor?

vapor pressure increases until it reaches dynamic equilibrium
rate of evaporation = rate of condensation
the liquid partices at the surface vaporize and produce increased vapor pressure, so then they later condense and return to liquid state

26

how does an increase in the temperature of a contained liquid affect the kinetic energy? Vapor pressure?

it increases them both

27

can a boiling liquid ever be increased above the boiling point by adding more energy

no

28

how can water be made to boil above the normal boiling point

higher external pressure

29

what are the six phase changes and what phases do they convert between

sublimation - solid to gas
deposition - gas to solid
evaporation - liquid to gas
condensation - gas to liquid
freezing - liquid to solid
melting - solid to liquid

30

what are the conditions of a polar bond

two different atoms
asymmetrical

31

what are the conditions for a non-polar molecule

2 same atoms
symmetry

32

how many bonding pairs of electrons are there in water

2

33

how many non-bonding pairs are there

2

34

what is the shape of water

bent

35

what is electronegativity

the ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound

36

which part of the periodic table are elements with the greatest electronegativities found?

top right

37

which elements do not have electronegativity values and why

noble gases
full
don't bond

38

which element in water has the highest electronegativity

oxygen

39

which element in water has the lowest electronegativity

hydrogen

40

Which element in water pulls the electrons closer to it

oxygen

41

what is the charge on oxygen in water

slightly negative

42

what is the charge of hydrogen in water

slightly positive

43

Is water a polar molecule

yes

44

what is hydrogen bonding

positive attracts to negative of another

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom

45

what are two consequences of hydrogen bonding in water

high surface tension
low vapor pressure

46

what does a surfactant do

interferes with hydrogen bonding and reduces surface tension

47

example of surfactant

detergent

48

bonds between water molecules are

hydrogen bonds

49

bonds between the H and O within a water molecule are

polar covalent bonds

50

Why does water have such a high boiling point compared to other compounds

hydrogen bonding causes high surface tension, particles can't break up as easily

51

why does it take so much energy to melt ice

hydrogen bonding

52

how can the boiling point be adjusted or changed

increased pressure will increase boiling point
increased altitude will lower boiling point

53

why is ice less dense than water

hydrogen bonds hold water in open framework

54

what is a homogeneous solution

solution that is uniform in composition

55

can the solute be filtered out from the solvent in a homogeneous solution

no

56

what types of substances can be dissolved in each other

like
polar in polar
nonpolar in nonpolar

57

what solutes form an electrolyte when dissolved in water

ionic compounds

58

under what other conditions do ionic compounds conduct electricity

when they are molten and soluble

59

what solutes are most likely to dissolve in water

ionic and polar

60

what solutes form non-electrolytes when dissolved in water

molecular compounds

61

what type of solution can conduct electricity

electrolytes

62

what types of elements for electrolytes

ionic

63

are all molecular compounds non-electrolytes

no

64

what molecular compounds are electrolytes

acids
NH3

65

What is the difference between weak and strong electrolytes

strong electrolyte - strong electric current, dissociate into ions completely
weak electrolyte - weak electric current, few ions dissociate

66

vaporization

the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor

67

Why might an ionic compound not dissolve in water

not soluble - attractions are stronger

68

how could you tell whether a compound would dissolve in water or not

solubility table

69

what affects the rate of dissolving

stirring
temperature
surface area

70

what is the expression for solubility

the number of grams of solute per 100g of solvent at a certain temperature

71

what affects the solubility of a solute and how?

temperature, pressure, nature of solvent (polar, nonpolar)
temp goes up, solubility goes up

72

what affects the solubility of a gas

temperature and pressure

73

how could you tell whether a solution was supersaturated

drop solute in and if it crystallizes is supersaturated