Chapter 2 - Matter and Change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Matter and Change Deck (81):
0

What is mass

a measure of the amount of matter the object contains

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what is volume

a measure of the space occupied by the object

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what is extensive property

a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample

3

intensive property

a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample

4

substance

matter that has a uniform and definite composition

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physical property

a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition

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solid

a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume

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liquid

a form of matter that has a definite shape, flows, yet has a fixed volume

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gas

a form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container

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vapor

the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature

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physical change

some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change

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What are properties used to describe matter?

extensive or intensive

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Since every sample of a substance has the same composition?

every sample has identical intensive properties

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three states of matter

solid
liquid
gas

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How can you classify physical change?

reversible or irreversible

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What is a mixture

a physical blend of two or more components

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How can mixtures be classified based on the distribution of their components?

heterogeneous or homogeneous

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heterogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the composition is not uniform

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homogeneous mixture

mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout

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another name for homogeneous mixture

solution

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phase

any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties

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What can differences in physical properties be used for?

separating mixtures

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filtration

the process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture

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distillation

liquid is boiled to produce vapor that is then condensed into liquid to separate water from other components

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element

the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties

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compound

a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion

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Which can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means? compounds or elements

compounds

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chemical change

a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter

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if the composition is fixed the material is

substance

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if the composition of the material may vary, it is

a mixture

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why do chemists use chemical symbols and chemical formulas

to represent elements
to represent compounds

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each element is represented by a one or two letter.

chemical symbol

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the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change

chemical property

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during a chemical change, the composition of matter...

always changes

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what is another name for chemical change

chemical reaction

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what happens in a chemical reaction

one or more substances change into one or more new substances

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reactant

substance present at the start of the reaction

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product

a substance produced in the reaction

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clues to chemical change

transfer of energy
change in color
production of gas
formation of precipitate

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precipitate

a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture

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during any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is

always equal to the mass of the reactants

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law of conservation of mass

in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved

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H

Hydrogen

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He

Helium

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Li

Lithium

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Be

Beryllium

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B

Boron

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C

Carbon

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N

Nitrogen

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O

Oxygen

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F

Fluorine

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Ne

Neon

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Helium

He

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Fluorine

F

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Nitrogen

N

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Boron

B

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Lithium

Li

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Neon

Ne

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Oxygen

O

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Carbon

C

60

Beryllium

Be

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Hydrogen

H

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what are physical properties

boiling and melting points
hardness
color
conductivity
malleability
state

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arrangement of particles in a solid

packed closely together in a rigid arrangement

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arrangement of particles in a liquid

close together, but free to flow past one another

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particle arrangement in a gas

relatively far apart and can move freely

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example of an irreversible physical change

cutting hair
filing nails
cracking egg

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example of reversible physical change

melting

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What temperature does water boil at?

100 degrees C

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What temperature does water freeze at?

0 degrees C

70

How can mixtures be separated?

distillation and filtration

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examples of extensive properties

length
size
energy
mass
volume

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examples of intensive properties

temperature
hardness
density
mass/volume
viscosity
melting point
boiling point

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Which state of matter is compressible?

gas

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What does distillation do?

separates homogeneous mixtures using boiling

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property of compounds

compounds will not always carry the same properties and characteristics of their elements

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what is a transfer of energy

release or absorb energy

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what is matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

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how to figure out if something is a substance or a mixture?

if there are different types of it, it is a mixture

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words that signify a chemical change

burn, rot, rust, decompose, ferment, explode, corrode

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every chemical change involves....

a transfer of energy