Chapter 5 - Electrons in Atoms Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Chapter 5 - Electrons in Atoms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Electrons in Atoms Deck (54):
0

energy levels

the fixed energies an electron can have

1

quantum

the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another energy level

2

quantum mechanical model

the modern description of the electrons in atoms that comes from the mathematical solutions to the Schrodinger equation

3

atomic orbital

a region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron

4

electron configurations

the ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms

5

aufbau principle

electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first

6

Pauli exclusion principle

atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
to occupy the same orbital, they must have opposite spins

7

Hund's rule

electrons occupy the orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible

8

amplitude

the wave's height from zero to crest

9

wavelength

the distance between the crests

10

symbol for wavelength

lambda
upside down y

11

frequency

the number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time

12

symbol for frequency

v

13

unit for frequency

s^-1 or hertz

14

electromagnetic radiation

radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, X-rays, gamma rays

15

spectrum

wavelengths of visible light that are separated when sunlight passes through a prism

16

atomic emission spectrum

the frequencies of light emitted by an element that separate into discrete lines

17

ground state

an electron has its lowest possible energy

18

photons

light quanta

19

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time

20

what did Democritus say about the atom

indivisible and indestructible

21

Dalton

solid sphere:
all elements composed of tiny indivisible particles
atoms are unique to that element
atoms of different elements can physically mix or chemically combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds
chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged, but they will not change elements

22

Thomson

plum pudding model - electrons

23

Rutherford

nucleus
positive dense center with electrons buzzing around

24

Bohr

electrons go in circular orbits

25

Schrodinger

quantum mechanical model - electron cloud

26

How many sublevels are in n=1

1

27

What type of orbitals are possible in n=1

s

28

max # of electrons in s

2

29

max. number of electrons in n=1

2

30

how many sublevels in n=2

2

31

type of orbitals in n=2

s
p

32

max number of electrons in p

6

33

max number of electrons in n=2

8

34

number of sublevels in n=3

3

35

types of orbitals in n=3

s
p
d

36

max number of electrons in d

10

37

max number of electrons in n=3

18

38

number of sublevels in n=4

4

39

orbitals in n=4

s
p
d
f

40

max number of electrons in f

14

41

max number of electrons in n=4

32

42

atomic orbitals in order

1s
2s
2p
3s
3p
4s
3d
4p
5s
4d
5p
6s
4f
5d
6p
7s
5f
6d
7p

43

3d^1 name the parts

3 - energy level/principal energy level
d - orbital/sublevel
1 - number of electrons

44

what happens when an atom absorbs energy

it goes from the stable ground state to the unstable excited state

45

what happens when an electron moves to a lower energy level

energy is released as light

46

What could Rutherford's model not do?

explain the chemical properties of elements

47

what does the quantum mechanical model propose

electrons move only in specific circular paths, or orbits, around the nucleus

48

what does each sublevel of a principal energy level correspond to?

an orbital shape describing where the electron is likely to be found

49

what tell you how to find the electron configurations of atoms

aufbau principle
Pauli exclusion principle
Hund's rule

50

why do some electron configurations differ from those assigned using the aufbau principle?

excited unstable ones that are not all filled

51

how are wavelength and frequency of light related

they are inversely proportional

52

the light emitted by an electron moving from a higher level to a lower level has a frequency ______ to the energy change of the electron

directly proportional

53

the difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics

classical mechanics adequately describes the motions of bodies much larger than atoms
quantum mechanics describes the motions of subatomic particles and atoms as waves