Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro To Chemistry Deck (75):
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and occupies space
What is chemistry?
the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
Why does chemistry affect all aspects of life and most natural events?
living and nonliving things are made of matter
5 traditional areas of study
What is organic chemistry?
the study of all chemicals containing carbon
What is inorganic chemistry?
the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon
What is biochemistry
the study of the processes that take place in organisms
what is analytical chemistry
the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
what is physical chemistry
the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
What is pure chemistry
the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake
what is applied chemistry
the research that is directed toward a practical goal or applicatoin
What can pure research do?
lead directly to an application
What is an example of an application existing before research is done?
what is technology?
the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed or desired
How is chemistry useful?
explaining the natural world
preparing people for career opportunities
producing informed citizens
Why do chemists design materials?
to fit specific needs
what is macroscopic?
the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye
what is the microscopic world?
the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification
What do chemists play an essential role in?
finding ways to conserve, produce, and store energy
What does chemistry do for doctors?
supplies the medicines, materials, and techology
what does biotechnology do?
applies science to the production of biological products or processes
what do chemists do with agriculture?
help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops
What is a pollutant?
a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans and other organisms
What do chemists do about pollution?
they help identify pollutants and prevent pollution
What do chemists do to study the universe?
they gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to earth
What did alchemists do?
develop tools and techniques for working with chemicals
What did Lavoisier help do?
transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today
What is the scientific method?
a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
What are the steps in the scientific method?
making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories
What is an observation
when you use your senses to obtain information
what is a hypothesis?
a proposed explanation for an observation
What is an experiment
a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis
what is a manipulated variable
the variable that you change during an experiment
What else do you call the manipulated variable
what is the responding variable
the variable that is observed during the experiment
What else do you call the responding variable
what is a theory
a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations
what is a scientific law
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
When scientists collaborate and communicate
they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome
What does effective problem solving always involve?
developing a plan and implementing that plan
What are the stems for solving a numeric word problem?
What are the steps for solving a conceptual problem
Where are inorganic chemicals found?
non-living things such as rocks
How did nylon come about?
How did aspirin come about
used early on to relieve pain and stop blood clots
Things that provide funds for scientific research
Who looked into burrs?
George de Mestral - Swiss
What was the result of de Mestral's discovery on burrs?
hook and loop tapes
What is energy used for?
What are the two ways to meet the demand for energy
conserve energy resources
produce more energy
a form of energy conservation
major sources of energy
burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas
What are coal, petroleum, and natural gas?
What is made from soybean oil?
What is the plus to biodiesel?
regular diesel lets out black exhaust
biodiesel smells like french fries
How many prescription drugs are there?
How many genes comprise human DNA?
what is the Human Genome Project?
scientists working on genes in DNA
What does biotechnology use?
techniques that can alter the DNA in living organisms
What might biotechnology depend on?
the transfer of genes from one organism to another
What happens when genes from humans are inserted to bacteria?
the bacteria acts as a factory, producing chemicals of importance to humans such as insulin
What will happen in the future of biotechnology?
gene therapy will treat some diseases
a gene not working right will be replaced by another one
How can you measure productivity?
measure the amount of edible food that is grown on a unit of land
factors that decrease productivity
poor soil qualilty
lack of water
pests that eat crops
What did insect killers use to be?
What is used to combat pinworms?
fake female mating chemical
What was discovered using the sun?
What did alchemy do?
developed techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes
searched for a way to change other metals into gold
What else did Lavoisier do?
made careful measurements
discovered how materials burn
What did Lavoisier discover about fire?
not the release of phlogiston, but the presence of oxygen and nitrogen
Who helped Lavoisier
his wife Marie Anne
How can the results of an experiment be accepted?
by getting the same thing no matter how many times it is repeated or by whom
Why must scientists publish their procedures with their results?
so some one else can test it