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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro To Chemistry Deck (75):
0

What is matter?

Anything that has mass and occupies space

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What is chemistry?

the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes

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Why does chemistry affect all aspects of life and most natural events?

living and nonliving things are made of matter

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5 traditional areas of study

organic
inorganic
biochemistry
analytical
physical

4

What is organic chemistry?

the study of all chemicals containing carbon

5

What is inorganic chemistry?

the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon

6

What is biochemistry

the study of the processes that take place in organisms

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what is analytical chemistry

the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter

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what is physical chemistry

the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change

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What is pure chemistry

the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake

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what is applied chemistry

the research that is directed toward a practical goal or applicatoin

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What can pure research do?

lead directly to an application

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What is an example of an application existing before research is done?

aspirin

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what is technology?

the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed or desired

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How is chemistry useful?

explaining the natural world
preparing people for career opportunities
producing informed citizens

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Why do chemists design materials?

to fit specific needs

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what is macroscopic?

the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye

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what is the microscopic world?

the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification

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What do chemists play an essential role in?

finding ways to conserve, produce, and store energy

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What does chemistry do for doctors?

supplies the medicines, materials, and techology

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what does biotechnology do?

applies science to the production of biological products or processes

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what do chemists do with agriculture?

help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops

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What is a pollutant?

a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans and other organisms

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What do chemists do about pollution?

they help identify pollutants and prevent pollution

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What do chemists do to study the universe?

they gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to earth

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What did alchemists do?

develop tools and techniques for working with chemicals

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What did Lavoisier help do?

transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today

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What is the scientific method?

a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem

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What are the steps in the scientific method?

making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories

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What is an observation

when you use your senses to obtain information

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what is a hypothesis?

a proposed explanation for an observation

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What is an experiment

a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis

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what is a manipulated variable

the variable that you change during an experiment

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What else do you call the manipulated variable

independent

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what is the responding variable

the variable that is observed during the experiment

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What else do you call the responding variable

dependent variable

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what is a theory

a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations

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what is a scientific law

a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments

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When scientists collaborate and communicate

they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome

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What does effective problem solving always involve?

developing a plan and implementing that plan

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What are the stems for solving a numeric word problem?

analyze
calculate
evaluate

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What are the steps for solving a conceptual problem

analyze
solve

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Where are inorganic chemicals found?

non-living things such as rocks

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How did nylon come about?

pure chemistry
Hermann Staudinger
Wallace Carothers

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How did aspirin come about

applied chemistry
used early on to relieve pain and stop blood clots

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Things that provide funds for scientific research

industry
private foundations
federal government

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Who looked into burrs?

George de Mestral - Swiss

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What was the result of de Mestral's discovery on burrs?

hook and loop tapes

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What is energy used for?

heat buildings
manufacturing goods
processing foods

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What are the two ways to meet the demand for energy

conserve energy resources
produce more energy

50

a form of energy conservation

insulation

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major sources of energy

burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas

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What are coal, petroleum, and natural gas?

fossil fuels

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What is made from soybean oil?

biodiesel

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What is the plus to biodiesel?

regular diesel lets out black exhaust
biodiesel smells like french fries

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energy storage

batteries

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How many prescription drugs are there?

2000

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How many genes comprise human DNA?

30,000

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what is the Human Genome Project?

scientists working on genes in DNA

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What does biotechnology use?

techniques that can alter the DNA in living organisms

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What might biotechnology depend on?

the transfer of genes from one organism to another

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What happens when genes from humans are inserted to bacteria?

the bacteria acts as a factory, producing chemicals of importance to humans such as insulin

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What will happen in the future of biotechnology?

gene therapy will treat some diseases
a gene not working right will be replaced by another one

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How can you measure productivity?

measure the amount of edible food that is grown on a unit of land

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factors that decrease productivity

poor soil qualilty
lack of water
weeds
plant diseases
pests that eat crops

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What did insect killers use to be?

nonspecific

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What is used to combat pinworms?

fake female mating chemical

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What was discovered using the sun?

helium

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What did alchemy do?

developed techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes
searched for a way to change other metals into gold

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What else did Lavoisier do?

made careful measurements
discovered how materials burn

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What did Lavoisier discover about fire?

not the release of phlogiston, but the presence of oxygen and nitrogen

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Who helped Lavoisier

his wife Marie Anne

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How can the results of an experiment be accepted?

by getting the same thing no matter how many times it is repeated or by whom

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Why must scientists publish their procedures with their results?

so some one else can test it

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What is involved in analyzing a numeric word problem?

finding the known and unknown