1.4 The short and long term effects of exercise Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.4 The short and long term effects of exercise Deck (44)
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1

What is muscle fatigue?

When muscles become tired

2

When might muscle fatigue occur?

During or after long duration or high intensity exercise

3

Does muscle fatigue usually occur as a result of aerobic or anaerobic respiration?

Anaerobic

4

What is it that causes muscles to feel sore following anaerobic exercise?

Lactic acid

5

Muscle fatigue can often lead to...

Cramp

6

When is a sports person likely to get cramp?

At the end of a very long match, e.g. in extra time
When it is hot and they are dehydrated

7

What happens to heart rate when you exercise?

It increased

8

Why does heart rate increase when you exercise?

Supply additional oxygen to the body and remove additional carbon dioxide

9

Define heart rate

The number of times your heart beats per minute

10

What is heart rate measured in?

Beats per minute (BPM)

11

Why is the resting heart rate of a trained athlete lower than that of an untrained person?

The heart is a muscle so becomes bigger and stronger with exercise.
The stronger heart can beat more blood with each beat.
This means it doesn't have to beat as often, lowering resting heart rate.

12

What happens to your heart rate recovery time as you get fitter?

It decreases

13

How do you calculate maximum heart rate?

Maximum HR = 220 - age

14

Define stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped bu the heart during each beat

15

What happens to stroke volume over time if you exercise regulalry

It increases

16

Define cardiac output

The mount of blood pumped by the heart in a minute

17

What is the equation to calculate cardiac output?

cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume

18

What happens to cardiac output every time you exercise?

It increases

19

What happens to your breathing when you exercise?

You breathe faster and deeper

20

When does oxygen debt occur

After anaerobic exercise

21

Why does an althlete's breathing rate not return to resting as soon as they stop exercising

The body has to repay the oxygen that has been used. This is most notable after anaerobic exercise when a person may take a number of very deep breaths.

22

Name the short term effects of exercise on the cardio-respiratory system

Increased breathing rate
Increased breathing depth
Increased cardiac output
Increased heart rate
Increased tidal volume

23

Name the long term effects of exercise on the cardio-respiratory system

Increased cardiac output
Increased stroke volume
Decrease in heart rate recovery time

24

Give the three long term effects of exercise on the musculo-skeletal system

1. Increased bone density
2. Increased strength of ligaments and tendons
3. Muscle hypertrophy

25

What is meant by weight bearing exercise?

Exercise that requires the performer to support all of their own weight

26

Give three examples of weight bearing exercises

Netball
Running
Football
Yoga
Tennis

27

Give two examples of non weight bearing exercise

Swimming
Cycling
Using the cross trainer in the gym

28

What is the name given to the condition that elderly people develop as a result of not enough weight bearing exercise?

Osteoporosis

29

Is it weight bearing or non weight bearing exercise that increases the strength of ligaments and tendons?

Weight bearing

30

What is the benefit of increased ligament and tendon strength to a sports performer

Reduced the chance of injury. They can stretch further and make bigger more sudden movements without the ligaments and tendons tearing