Flashcards in 1.4 The short and long term effects of exercise Deck (44)
What is muscle fatigue?
When muscles become tired
When might muscle fatigue occur?
During or after long duration or high intensity exercise
Does muscle fatigue usually occur as a result of aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
What is it that causes muscles to feel sore following anaerobic exercise?
Muscle fatigue can often lead to...
When is a sports person likely to get cramp?
At the end of a very long match, e.g. in extra time
When it is hot and they are dehydrated
What happens to heart rate when you exercise?
Why does heart rate increase when you exercise?
Supply additional oxygen to the body and remove additional carbon dioxide
Define heart rate
The number of times your heart beats per minute
What is heart rate measured in?
Beats per minute (BPM)
Why is the resting heart rate of a trained athlete lower than that of an untrained person?
The heart is a muscle so becomes bigger and stronger with exercise.
The stronger heart can beat more blood with each beat.
This means it doesn't have to beat as often, lowering resting heart rate.
What happens to your heart rate recovery time as you get fitter?
How do you calculate maximum heart rate?
Maximum HR = 220 - age
Define stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped bu the heart during each beat
What happens to stroke volume over time if you exercise regulalry
Define cardiac output
The mount of blood pumped by the heart in a minute
What is the equation to calculate cardiac output?
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
What happens to cardiac output every time you exercise?
What happens to your breathing when you exercise?
You breathe faster and deeper
When does oxygen debt occur
After anaerobic exercise
Why does an althlete's breathing rate not return to resting as soon as they stop exercising
The body has to repay the oxygen that has been used. This is most notable after anaerobic exercise when a person may take a number of very deep breaths.
Name the short term effects of exercise on the cardio-respiratory system
Increased breathing rate
Increased breathing depth
Increased cardiac output
Increased heart rate
Increased tidal volume
Name the long term effects of exercise on the cardio-respiratory system
Increased cardiac output
Increased stroke volume
Decrease in heart rate recovery time
Give the three long term effects of exercise on the musculo-skeletal system
1. Increased bone density
2. Increased strength of ligaments and tendons
3. Muscle hypertrophy
What is meant by weight bearing exercise?
Exercise that requires the performer to support all of their own weight
Give three examples of weight bearing exercises
Give two examples of non weight bearing exercise
Using the cross trainer in the gym
What is the name given to the condition that elderly people develop as a result of not enough weight bearing exercise?
Is it weight bearing or non weight bearing exercise that increases the strength of ligaments and tendons?