15CHAPTER 11: MUSCLE TISSUES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15CHAPTER 11: MUSCLE TISSUES Deck (102):
1

What are contractile proteins and what do they do?

Actin and myosin, shortens muscle fibers

2

What are regulatory proteins and what do they do?

Troponin and tropomyosin, acts like a switch

3

What is dystrophin?

A protein that links actin to cell membrane = endomysium

4

What happens what there is a lack of dystrophin?

Muscular dystrophy (genetic disorder)

5

What are the different kinds of striations?

A-band (dark), I-band (light), H-band, Z-disc, and sarcomeres.

6

What are A-bands composed of?

Entire thick filament + portion of thin filament

7

What are I-bands composed of?

Portion of thin filament, adjacent to Z disc

8

What are H-bands composed of?

Thick filament only (middle of A-band)

9

What are sarcomeres composed of?

Distance from one Z disc to the next; contractile unit of a muscle fiber

10

What are Z-bands composed of?

Anchorage for thin filaments and elastic filaments

11

What is a motor unit and # fibers innervated by 1 motor neuron depends?

One nerve fiber + all the muscle fibers it innervates, depends on function of muscle

12

What is a neuromuscular junction?

Functional connection between a nerve fiber and a muscle cell

13

What happens at the synaptic knob in the neuromuscular junction?

–neurotransmitter (Ach) is released  travels across synaptic cleft
–Ach receptors on sarcolemma accepts neurotransmitter
–after a sequence of events, muscle contracts

14

What does it mean when cells are electrically excitable?

Plasma membranes exhibit voltage changes in response to stimulation

15

What is membrane potential (MP)?

The electrical charge in a cell relative to outside the cell

16

What kind of MP does most cells have?

Negative MP
Inside: proteins-, nucleic acids-, K+
Outside: Na+, Cl-

17

What is resting membrane potential (RMP) and what maintains it?

Difference in charge across the membrane, maintained by Na/K pump

18

What opens ion gates in plasma membrane?

Stimulation

19

When do voltage-gated ion channels open?

Open when the MP reaches a critical level (threshold)

20

When do ligand-gated ion channels open?

Open when a chemical messenger binds; e.g. acetylcholine

21

What happens during depolarization?

Na+ ion gates open, Na+ rushes into cell causing a positive MP

22

What happens during repolarization?

K+ ion gates open, K+ rushes into cell causing a negative MP

23

What is an action potential (AP)?

Quick up-and-down voltage shifts

24

What are the steps of Excitation of muscle by nerve (steps 1-5)?

1. Arrival of nerve signal
2. Acetylcholine is released
3. Binding of Ach to receptor
4. Opening of ligand-gated ion channel
5. Opening of voltage-gated ion channel

25

What are the 4 actions involved with behavior of skeletal muscle fibers?

1) Excitation = nerve action potentials lead to action potentials in muscle fiber
2) Excitation-contraction coupling = action potentials on the sarcolemma activate myofilaments
3) Contraction = shortening of muscle fiber
4) Relaxation = return to resting length

26

What are the steps of Excitation-contraction coupling (steps 6-9)?

6. Action potentials propagated
7. Calcium released from terminal cisternae
8. Binding of calcium to troponin
9. Shifting of tropomyosin; exposure of active sties on actin

27

What are the steps of Contraction (steps 10-13)?

10. Hydrolysis of ATP; activation and cocking of myosin head
11 Formation of myosin-actin cross-bridge
12. Power stroke; sliding of thin filament over thick filament
13. Binding of new ATP; breaking of cross-bridge

28

What are the steps of Relaxation (steps 14-18)?

14. Cessation of nervous stimulation and ACh release
15. ACh breakdown by AChE
16. Reabsorption of calcium ions by sarcoplasmic reticulum, ATP needed
17. Loss of calcium ions from troponin
18. Return of tropomyosin to position blocking active sites of actin

29

When do muscles return to resting length?

- When CT components stretch it out to resting length
- When contraction of antagonist lengthens it

30

How fast does rigor mortis occur after death?

3-4 hours

31

What is length-tension relationship?

Amount of tension generated by a muscle (the force of its contraction) depends on how stretched (or contracted) the muscle was before stimulation.

32

What happens when the muscle is overly stretched?

Little overlap exists between actin and myosin

33

What happens when the muscle is overly contracted?

Little room to build more tension

34

Strength of a twitch can vary depending on what?

1. Stimulus frequency
2. Amount of calcium in sarcoplasmic reticulum
3. Degree of stretch of muscle before stimulation = L/T relationship
4. Temperature of muscle:
5. pH of muscle:
6. State of hydration of muscle:
7. Recruitment

35

If the stimuli arriving close together, the twitches will be _______.

Stronger

36

Why do warmed muscle contracts more strongly?

Enzymes in myosin heads work more quickly

37

Twitches with low frequency (up to __ stimuli/sec) have stimuli that each produce what?

10, produces an identical twitch response, muscle relaxes completely between stimuli

38

What is Treppe?

moderate frequency of twitches (between 10-20 stimuli/sec)

39

What happens to a twitch is treppe?

each twitch has time to recover but develops more tension than the one before à stronger twitches (staircase phenomenon)

40

What causes the enzymes work better during twitches?

Increase calcium in sarcoplasm and increase temperature

41

What is incomplete Tetanus?

Higher frequency stimulation of twitches (20-40 stimuli/second)

42

What happens during incomplete tetanus?

Generates gradually more strength of contraction

43

What is sustained fluttering contractions?

each stimuli arrives before last one recovers, muscle doesn’t relax completely

44

What is complete Tetanus?

Maximum frequency stimulation of twitches (40-50 stimuli/second)

45

What happens during complete tetanus?

-muscle has no time to relax at all
-twitches fuse into smooth, prolonged contraction called complete tetanus
- rarely occurs in the body

46

What is an isometric muscle contraction?

Contraction where tension changes, length does not
-important in postural muscle function

47

What is an isotonic muscle contraction?

Contraction where length changes, tension does not

48

What is it called when there is tension while shortening?

Concentric

49

What is it called when there is tension while lengthening?

Eccentric

50

What are the isometric and isotonic phases of lifting?

-tension rises but length remains the same (object is not moved)
-tension levels off, muscle begins to shorten (object is moved)

51

How much ATP does a human make daily?

100 s of ATP daily.

52

In the presence of O2, fatty acids and glucose are degraded in aerobic respiration to produce what?

36 TP for muscle cells

53

In the absence of O2, glucose is degraded in anaerobic fermentation to produce what?

2 ATP + lactic acid

54

What are the modes of ATP Synthesis?

Myokinase and creatine kinase

55

What happens during myokinase?

2 ADP to 1 ATP + 1 AMP (transfer of one Pi)

56

What happens during Creatine kinase?

Pi is transferred from creatine phosphate to ADP to ATP

57

Limits to endurance are set by what factors?

Depletion of glycogen and blood glucose, loss of fluid, and electrolytes “sports drinks”

58

What is Fatigue?

Progressive weakness from use

59

What are the causes of fatigue?

-decrease ATP synthesis as glycogen is consumed
-decrease pH due to increased lactic acid à enzymes don’t work well
-decrease activity of Na/K pump – can’t maintain RMP and  excitability of muscle fibers
-decrease ACh in motor nerve fibers depleted and less capable of stimulating muscle fibers
-CNS system fatigue, less signal output to skeletal muscles

60

What is endurance?

Ability to maintain high-intensity exercise for >5 minutes

61

What is endurance determined by?

Determined by maximum oxygen uptake
Determined by nutrient availability

62

Well-conditioned muscles will have what?

– More blood vessels à more O2 delivery
– More mitochondria (for endurance activities)
– More enzymes for the phosphagen system (for burst type activity)

63

What is oxygen debt?

Fast breathing after exercise

64

What is the purposes for extra oxygen:

– Replace O2 reserves (myoglobin, blood hemoglobin, in air in the lungs and dissolved in plasma)
– Replenish phosphagen system
– Oxidize lactic acid to glucose (in the liver)
– Serve elevated metabolic rate

65

What is a slow twitch?

Respond slowly but resistant to fatigue

66

What is a fast twitch?

Respond quickly but fatigue quickly

67

What is resistance training?

(weight lifting) Builds muscle size by stimulating cell enlargement due to synthesis of more myofilaments

68

What is endurance training?

(aerobic exercise) Improves fatigue resistance by producing an increase in mitochondria, glycogen, and density of capillaries  rbc,

69

What is positively changed by endurance training?

better function of cardio system = better aerobic respiration

70

In multiunit smooth muscle, terminal branches of nerve fibers synapse with what? And what is the ratio?

Synapse with individual myocytes to form a motor unit (like a skeletal muscle motor unit)
1:1

71

What are the different types of smooth muscle?

Multiunit smooth muscle and Single-unit smooth muscle

72

What is the most common type of smooth muscle?

Single-unit smooth muscle

73

What do Single-unit smooth muscle form?

Forms circular and longitudinal muscle layers

74

Autonomic nerve fibers have beadlike swellings called what?

varicosities which release neurotransmitters

75

What connects muscle fibers in Single-unit smooth muscle?

gap junctions
Stimulation of Smooth Muscle is due to what?
• Chemical stimuli: CO2, hormones, pH
• Autonomic nervous system:
• Stretch
• Presence of pacemaker cells

76

How does calcium enter smooth muscle and what does it bind to?

-Comes from extracellular fluid through Ca2+ channels, not SR like in skeletal muscle
-Binds to calmodulin

77

Actin myofilaments are anchored to dense bodies on what?

the sarcoplasm and on the sarcolemma

78

What causes muscle response to stretch?

Stretch opens mechanically-gated calcium channels in sarcolemma

79

What is Stress Relaxation Response?

Smooth muscle contracts and then reflexively relaxes in response to stretch

80

What are the Characteristics of Muscles?

Responsiveness
Conductivity
Contractility
Extensibility
Elasticity

81

What is conductivity?

Stimulation of one muscle cell= contraction of whole muscle

82

What is contractility?

Unique to muscle, shortens and pulls on bone= movement

83

What is the extensibility of muscles?

Can stretch 3x contracted length

84

What is elasticity?

Stretch and recoil

85

What is skeletal muscle attached to?

Bone or skin

86

Are skeletal muscles voluntary or involuntary?

Voluntary

87

What causes striations in skeletal muscle?

due to overlap of contractile proteins actin and myosin

88

What is skeletal muscle composed of?

Muscle tissue and CT

89

What does endomysium surround?

Muscle fiber (cell)

90

What does perimysium surround?

Bundles muscle fibers into muscle fascicle

91

What does epimysium surround?

Encloses entire muscle

92

Muscle fibers are composed of long protein bundles called ____.

Myofibrils

93

each myofibril is a bundle of protein microfilaments called________.

Myofilaments

94

What are the 3 types of myofilaments?

1. Thick filaments
2. Thin filaments
3. Elastic filaments

95

What are thick filaments?

Myosin (hundreds of myosin molecules)

96

What are thin filaments?

Actin (beads) with activesites for myosin

97

What does tropomyosin do?

blocks myosin binding site on actin beads (muscle is relaxed)

98

What does tropomyosin do?

blocks myosin binding site on actin beads (muscle is relaxed)

99

What does troponin do?

binds tropomyosin and Ca2+ (shifts tropomyosin off binding sites)

100

What is elastic filament made of?

Titin

101

What is the function of elastic filament?

-anchor thick filament to the Z disc (stay tuned for more!)
-stabilizes thick filament, centers it between the thin filaments, prevents overstretching

102

If you find a dead body and it is stiff, how long ago did they die?

Between 3-60 hrs.