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Flashcards in 15Chapter 2: Introduction to Chemistry Deck (45)
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1

All living and non-living things consist of _______.

Matter

2

List the 4 elements that make up about 96% of our body weight.

1. Carbon
2. Nitrogen
3. Hydrogen
4. Oxygen

3

What elements are S, Na, Mg, and Fe?

Sulfur
Sodium
Magnesium
Iron

4

What are the symbols for Potassium, Chlorine, Hydrogen?

K, Cl, H, C

5

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that differ slightly in mass.

6

Radioactive Isotope

An isotope that is unstable and emits radiation (energy) as it breaks down.

7

Electrolyte

An ionic compound (salt, acid, or base) that beaks apart into cations and anions when dissolved.
-- conducts electric current.

8

What kind of charges are carried by cations and anions?

Cation= positive charge
Anion= negative charge

9

Ionic bond *give example

Positively charged ions that are attracted to one another (weak bond)
example= sodium chloride (table salt)

10

Covalent Bond *give example

When atoms form a molecule by sharing one, two, or three pairs of their outer shell electrons
example: hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), methane (CH4), and water(H2O)

11

What is the pH of blood?

7.35-7.45

12

The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in their number of __________.

Neutrons

13

Which element is needed for clotting and muscle contraction, and contributes to the hardness of teeth and bone?

calcium

14

What type of bonds hold water molecules together?

covalent bonds

15

The more _______ ions present in a solution, the more basic the solution.

Hydrogen

16

An acid is a substance that dissociates in H2O into one or more _______ ions and one or more _______.

Hydrogen / anions

17

Organic compounds always contain?

Hydrogen and carbon

18

The most plentiful lipid in the human body is ________.

Triglyceride

19

"Saturated fat" is saturated with what?

Hydrogen

20

Steroids are classifies as ______.

Lipids

21

In RNA, the base that is present instead of thymine is ________.

Uracil

22

ATP belongs to the category of compounds known as what?

Nucleic Acids

23

How is ATP the "energy currency" of the cell?

ATP releases energy stored in its 2 high-energy phosphate bonds.

24

How does RNA differ from DNA chemically and physically?

Chemically:
RNA nucleotides are made up of the sugar ribose,
DNA nucleotides are made up of deoxyribose.
Physically:
RNA is single-stranded,
DNA is double-stranded.
RNA uses uracil while
DNA uses thymine.

25

Structure of DNA

DNA is a large molecule consisting of two helically wound chains of nucleotides.
The two chains are held together by hydrogen bonding between the nitrogenous base pairs
-Adenine and thymine (A,T)
-Cytosin and granine (C,G)

26

Nucleotides

Building blocks of nucleic acids.
Made up of a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups.

27

What is the function of an enzyme?

Enzymes are biological catalysts that have specufic "active" binding rates for certain substrates. Enzymes low energy of activation so that reactions in cell can occur at appropriate rate.

28

What are the 4 chemical groups of an amino acid?

1. hydrogen
2. an amine
3. a carboxyl
4. a side chain (R group)

29

What are the 3 important types of lipid and their functions?

1. Triglycerides - energy storage
2. Phospholipids - membrane structure
3. Steroids - hormone membrane structure

30

Lipids

Include most of the substances that are insoluble in H2O but soluble in non-polar solvents such as chloroform or ether.