15CHAPTER 12: NERVOUS TISSUE Flashcards Preview

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Nervous system uses electrical and chemical means to send messages from cell to cell: what are the three basic steps?`

1. Sense organs receive information and send info to spinal cord and brain
2. Brain and spinal cord determine responses
3. Brain and spinal cord issue commands to glands and muscles


What are the two major anatomical subdivisions of Nervous System?

Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)


What is the Central nervous system (CNS)?

brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings


What does the Peripheral nervous system (PNS) consist of?

Nerves and ganglion


What is a nerve?

bundle of axons (nerve fibers) wrapped in connective tissue


What is a ganglion?

swelling in a nerve where cell bodies of neurons are concentrated


What are the functional divisions of PNS?

Sensory (afferent = toward) divisions (receptors to CNS) and
Motor (efferent = away) division (CNS to effectors)


What are the universal properties of nerve cells (neurons)?

• Excitability
• Conductivity
• Secretion


What is excitability?

The response to changes in the body and external environment called stimuli, like muscle


What does conductivity produce?

traveling electrical signals, like muscle


What does nerve cells secrete?

secrete chemical neurotransmitter (NTr), unlike muscle


How many types of neuroglia are there and where can you find them?

6 kinds: 4 in the CNS and 2 in the PNS


What are the 4 types of neuroglia of the CNS?

1. Oligodendrocytes
2. Ependymal Cells
3. Microglia
4. Astrocytes


What is the function of oligodendroctyes?

Makes myelin sheath in CNS


What is the function of ependymal cells and where are they found?

-Secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
-Line internal cavities of brain and spinal cord


What are microglia composed of?

Small macrophages, phagocytize pathogens, dead nervous tissue


What are the neuroglia of the PNS?

1. Schwann cells
2. Satellite cells


Where do you find satellite cells?

Surround somas of neurons in ganglia (collection of somas) of the PNS


What do schwann cells do?

Make myelin sheath around nerve fibers (axons) in PNS


What is the electrical insulation around axons?



What is myelin composed of?

80% lipid, 20% protein


What is the function of astrocytes?

-Supportive framework
-Secrete nerve growth factors
-Regulate chemical composition of ECF i.e. absorb neurotransmitters and K+ ions


What does conduction speed of nerve fibers depends on?

1.Diameter of the nerve fiber (axon):
2.Presence or absence of myelin: faster conduction with myelin


What axons can regenerate?

Only PNS axons


What is denervation atrophy?

shrinkage due to lack of nerve supply


What is the Resting membrane potential (RMP)

– The charge difference across the plasma membrane
– Around -70 mV in resting neuron
– Changes in RMP allow signal conduction


What are local potentials?

A short range change in the RMP; may or may not reach the trigger zone, often restricted to dendrite and soma, signal can fade, excitatory or inhibitory


What are the 7 steps of an Action Potential?

1. A local potential arrives at the trigger zone from the cell soma.
2. Membrane potential depolarizes, and reaches threshold (-55 mV)
3. Voltage-regulated Na+ channels open and Na+ enters; potential rises quickly.
4. Na+ channels start to close
5. K+ channels open and K+ leaves -----This repolarizes and then
6. hyperpolarizes the membrane potential.
7. Pumps and diffusion return Na+/K+ balance.


What is the refractory period?

Period of resistance to stimulation


What are the 2 types of refractory periods?

Absolute refractory period
Relative refractory period


What is a synapse?

A junction between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle cell


What do presynaptic neuron (axons) release?

A neurotransmitter (chemical signal) which crossed the synaptic cleft and stimulates the postsynaptic neuron


What are the steps of synaptic transmission?

1. AP arrives at the synaptic knob of the presynaptic neuron.
2. Calcium enters the presynaptic neuron
3. Calcium triggers exocytosis of neurotransmitter
4. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to a receptor on the postsynaptic neuron and alters physiology of that cell.


What are the 4 major categories of neurotransmitters based on chemical composition?

Acetylcholine (ACh), Monoamines, Amino acids and Neuropeptides.


What are the 3 types of synapses with different modes of actions?

Excitatory cholinergic synapse
Inhibitory GABA-ergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) synapse
Excitatory adrenergic synapse


What are considered neuromodulators?

Hormones, neuropeptides, other messengers that modify synaptic transmission


What doe neuromodulators do?

-Raise or lower number of receptors in post synaptic neuron membrane
-Alter rate of neurotransmitter release, synthesis, or breakdown


What is neural integration?

ability of our neurons to process info, store and recall it, and make decisions