Flashcards in Chapter 8: Muscle Tissue Deck (77)
What are the 4 major functional characteristics of muscles?
What is Excitability?
Muscle tissue has the capacity to respond to the stimulation of nervous impulses or hormones.
What is Contractility?
Muscle tissue has the capacity to shorten or contract with force.
What is Extensibility?
Muscle tissue can stretch beyond (within reason) resting length.
What is Elasticity?
Muscle tissue returns to resting length after being stretched.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
1. Skeletal muscle
2. Smooth muscle
3. Cardiac muscle
What are the major structural and functional differences among the 3 types of muscle tissue?
-primarily attached to bones
2. Cardiac Muscle
-forms wall of heart
3. Smooth (visceral) Muscle
-located in viscera
What are the 5 key function of muscle?
1. produces body movements
2. stabilizes body positions
3. regulates organ volume
4. moves substances within the body
5. generates heat
What separated muscle from skin?
(or subcutaneous layer)
What are the function of superficial fascia?
-separates muscle from skin
-provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels
-protects muscles from trauma
What is the function of deep fascia?
-holds muscles with similar functions together
-allows for free movement of muscles
-carries nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels
-fills spaces between muscles
What attached muscle to bone or muscle to other muscles?
Tendons and aponeuroses
What conveys impulses for muscular contractions?
Nerves (containing motor neurons)
What provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction?
covers the entire muscle
Covers the fasciculi
Covers individual muscle fibres.
What is a muscle fiber?
thousands of elongated, cylindrical cells arranged parallel to one another.
Each muscle fiber is covered by a plasma membrane called ________.
What is muscle fibers cytoplasm called?
What does sarcoplasm contain?
Many mitochondria that produce large amounts of ATP during muscle contractions.
What is sacroplasmic reticulum and what dose it store?
-encircles each myofibril
-a network of fluid-filled membrane-enclosed tubules
stores calcium ions.
What are myofibrils composed of?
thick and thin filaments arranged in units called sarcomeres.
What are sarcomeres?
the basic functional units of a myofibril and show distinct dark (A band) and light (I band) areas.
Where does the Z discs pass through?
center of an I band
Where will you find an H zone?
center of a A band
What is a myofibril?
Cylindrical structures that extend along the entire length of muscle fiber.
When do contractile proteins generate force?
What is myosin and what does it function as?
-the main component of thick filaments
-functions as a motor protein.