15CHAPTER 15: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15CHAPTER 15: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Deck (57)
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1

What is the general function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS?

S= fight or flight
P= Rest and digest

2

Whats the difference in heart activity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS?

S= increases HR, increases strength of contraction
P= decrease HR, and strength of contraction

3

What is the difference in the digestive system between the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS?

S= decreases blood flow,
P= increases motility and secretion

4

What is the difference in the urinary system between the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS?

S= decreases blood flow
P= micturition reflex

5

What are the actions of blood vessels in the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS?

S= stimulation = vasoconstriction = decrease in blood flow
P= none

6

Where is the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS located?

S= thoracolumbar
P= craniosacral

7

Which ANS is responsible for maintaining homeostasis?

Both, sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS

8

Which ANS has background rate of activity causing autonomic tone?

Both, sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS

9

Neural pathways have what 2 neurons that come from the spinal cord and arrive at the target?

Preganglionic and postganglionic neurons

10

What are preganglionic neurons?

Cell body in spinal cord or brainstem

11

What are postganglionic neurons?

Cell body in autonomic ganglion or near the target

12

Where does the Sympathetic NS arise from?

the thoracolumbar location of the spinal cord.

13

In the SNS, short preganglionic myelinated neurons are with cell bodies located where?

in the lateral horn of gray matter in spinal cord

14

In the SNS, where does the axons travel?

Axon travels in spinal nerve and then communicating ramus (white) to the sympathetic chain ganglion

15

What is the ratio of preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the SNS?

1:17

16

From the sympathetic chain ganglion, what are the 3 pathways are possible for the ganglionic/postganglionic fibers?

1. Spinal nerve route
2. Sympathetic nerve route
3. Splanchnic nerve route

17

What occurs in the spinal nerve route?

Preganglionic fibers synapse on postganglionic neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia = postganglionic fibers go back into spinal nerve via gray communicating ramus = take signal to skin, blood vessels, sweat glands etc.

18

What occurs in the sympathetic nerve route?

Preganglionic fibers travel up (or down) the sympathetic trunk, synapse on postganglionic neurons in ganglia at other levels = postganglionic fibers take signal to heart, lungs, pupils, glands

19

What occurs in the splanchnic nerve route?

Preganglionic fibers go through the chain without synapsing and continue as splanchnic nerves to synapse with postganglionic neurons in collateral ganglia (2nd set of ganglia) = postganglionic fibers take signal to digestive, reproductive, urinary organs

20

Where can you find the adrenal glands?

Sits on top of kidneys

21

What does the adrenal cortex secrete?

Steroid hormones

22

What does the adrenal medulla contain?

Contains modified sympathetic ganglion (postganglionic neurons without dendrites or axons)

23

The preganglionic neuron stimulates modified postganglionic neurons to release what?

Hormones into blood

24

Where does the parasympathetic NS arise from?

The craniosacral location

25

In the PNS, long preganglionic neurons, with cell bodies in brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla) or sacral spinal cord (S2 – S4) synapse with what and where?

Short postganglionic neurons in terminal ganglia near target organ

26

In the PNS there are short postganglionic neurons with cell bodies located where?

Near the target

27

What is the ratio of preganglionic and postganglion neurons in the PNS?

1:2

28

What are the 4 cranial nerves that are controlled by the PNS?

Oculomotor (III), facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X)

29

What is the enteric nervous system specific to?

The digestive tract

30

Does the enteric nervous system arise from the brain or spinal cord?

Neither