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Flashcards in 16 Pneumonias Deck (17)
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1

What is pneumonia? Outline its typical course of infection.

Inflammation of lung tissue due to infection

Common feature: cellular exudate in alveolar spaces

2

What is pneumonitis?

Inflammation of lung tissue due to non-infective causes eg physical/chemical damage

3

Whats the difference between lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia?

Lobar= confined to a lobe of lung

Bronchopneumonia= patchier, diffuse

4

How are pneumonias classified?

Classified by: source of infection

  • Community acquired pneumonia 
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  • Pneumonia in immunocompromised patients 

5

What are the causative organisms for Community acquired pneumonia?

6

What is classed as a Hospital acquired (nosocomial pneumonia)?

Infection in lower respiratory tract in hospitalised patients

Occurs >48hrs after admission and was not incubating at time of admission

assoicated with impaired defences

7

What are some of the causative organisms for Hospital acquired  (nosocomial) pneumonia?

Gram negative bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus 

8

How is aspiration pneumonia caused? What might predispose someone to acquiring this? What are the causative organisms?

How?

Aspiring food, drink, saliva or vomit into lungs

Why?

Individuals:

  •  whose concious level in altered 
  • Anaesthesia
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Drug abuse

Causative organism?

Oral flora

Anaerobes

 

9

Give some examples of causative organisms for pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.

  • Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Aspergillus species
  • Cytomegalovirus

10

How does pneumonia present?

  • Malaise
  • Fever 
  • Cough
    • - productive sputum (purulent, rusty coloured- blood, blood stained)
  • Pleuritic chest pain
  • Dyspnoea

11

To assess the severity of pneumonia, the CURB 65 score is used. Outline how this is used.

Hospital treatment required - Presence of 2+ features

ICU treatment- High score 

 

12

Give an example of an organism that causes rapid onset of pneumonia and an example of one that has a more prolonged onset?

Pneumococcal and Staphylococcal = rapid onset

Mycoplasma pneumonia and other atypical pneumonias = prolonged 

13

What will the chest x-ray and the microbiology show if a patient has pneumonia?

14

Pneumococcal pneumonia in previously well patients has a mortality of 5%. In which patients is the mortality likely to be higher?

Older patients

High CURB score

High or low white cell count

Absense of fever

Significant hypoxia 

Rise in blood urea

Extensive x-ray shadowing

15

  How is pneumonia managed?

16

What complications can be caused by pneumonia?

  • Pleural effusion
  • Lung absess
  • Empyema (pus-filled pockets that develop in the pleural space) 

17

What defences does the respiratory system have against pathogens?