17. Childhood Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17. Childhood Disorders Deck (37):

What are the 2 groups of ADHD?



What are the symptoms and criteria for inattention ADHD?

At least 6 of the following need to be present:
-Fails to pay attention to details
-Difficulty sustaining attention
-Not listening when spoken to
-Not following instructions
-Not completing tasks
-Messy work (handwriting)
-Losing things for tasks
-Easily distracted
-Forgetful in daily activities
*may also be hyper-focused


What are the symptoms and criteria for hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD?

At least 6 of the following symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity need to be present:
-Fidgeting w/ hands or feet
-Squirming in seat
-Runs/climbs about excessively
-Has difficulty playing quietly
-Always "on the go"
-Often talks excessively
-Often blurts out answers
-Has difficulty awaiting turn
-Interrupts or intrudes on others


How many settings must symptoms need to occur in to be diagnosed w/ ADHD?

2 or more (home, work, school, etc.)


What are the types of ADHD?

-ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
-ADHD predominantly inattentive type
-ADHD combined type


What is the prevalence of ADHD?



What are the gender trends of ADHD?

-At least 4x more boys than girls diagnosed
-Boys more likely to be hyperactive
-Girls more likely to be predominanlty inattentive


When is the onset of ADHD?

Prior to age 12


What is the course of ADHD? What percentage are still ADHD later on in life? Untreated?

-2/3 of ADHD kids are still ADHD in adolescence
-50% of children diagnosed w/ ADHD are still ADHD as adults
-For other 50%, brain maturation seems to have caught up
-Untreated ADHD takes a big toll on personal and professional life


What are the biological factors that contribute to ADHD?

-ADHD foremost is a neurobiological disorder
-Changes in dopamine and norepinephrine systems
-Dysfunction in frontal lobes and basal ganglia


What are the psycho-social and cultural factors that contribute to ADHD?

-Chaos in home; lack of structure & supervision
-Crowded living conditions; sedentary activities (watching TV)
-Overstimulation by hyper culture that clashes w boring class instruction
-Larger classes --> less tolerance for hyperactive children
-Modern society doesn't teach children to quiet themselves down


What kinds of medications are used to treat ADHD?



How do stimulants treat ADHD?

-Improve symptoms for 70% of school-aged kids w/ ADHD
-Amphetamines that increase dopamine activity


Name stimulants used to treat ADHD.



What are the possible side effects of stimulants that treat ADHD?

-Decreased appetite
-Stunted growth
-Increased heart rate
-Motor tics (Tourettes in predisposed peeps)
-Abuse potential w/ teens


List the antidepressants that are used to treat ADHD.



What behavioral approaches are used to treat ADHD?

-Token economy, immediate rewards
-Consistent parenting w/ clear consequences
-Structured environment
-Establish routines
-Modify school environment
-Teach self-instructional procedures


What disorders are comorbid w/ ADHD?

-Substance use disorder
-Oppositional defiant disorder
-Conduct disorder
-Depression disorder
-Anxiety disorder
-OCD spectrum disorders
-Learning disabilities


What is the criteria of Oppositional-Defiant Disorder?

Pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior that may include:
-loses temper
-defies, argues, refuses to comply w/ adults
-deliberately annoys peeps
-touchy, easily annoyed
-angry, resentful, blaming, spiteful, vindictive
*rules of peers are respected
*no destruction of property


What is the criteria for conduct disorder?

Repetitive pattern of behavior that violates social norms and the basic rights of others including peers
-agression, intimidation, bullying
-physical or sexual cruelty to humans or animals
-destroying property, fire setting
-lying, cheating, stealing
-truant from school (since before 13)
-staying out at night (since before 13)


What is the main gender difference in childhood disorders prior to puberty?

More boys suffer from psychological disorder


What are the gender differences in childhood disorders after puberty?

-Boys have more "acting out" disorders (conduct, substance abuse, ADHD)
-Girls have ore depression and eating disorder


What are the symptoms of childhood depression?

-Sadness, grief
-Hopelessness, helplessness
-Low self esteem
-Acting out, angry, irritable
-Somatic complaints


What are the contributing factors of childhood depression?

-Dysfunctional family, losses, divorce, attachment probs
-History of poor affective regulation
-Genetic predisposition
-Biochemical imbalance


What is the DSM-V definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

A) Persistent deficits in social communication and social interactions
B) Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
C) Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period
D) Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in important areas of life
E) Symptoms not better explained by a diagnosis of intellectual disability (can be comorbid though)


What manifests the persistent deficits in social communication and interactions of Autism Spectrum Disorder? Examples of each?

-Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (doesn't initiate convo, no back & forth flow of convos)
-Deficits in non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction (poor eye contact, lack of facial expression, probs understanding gestures & expressions of others)
-Deficits in developing, maintaining, understanding relationships (no interest in peers, not making friends, no imaginative or imitative play)


With Autism Spectrum Disorder, restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities must have 2/4 of what? Examples?

-Stereotyped or repetitive movements, use of objects, or speech (motor tics, idiosyncratic use of language, echolalia)
-Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior (rigid greeting rituals, distress w/ small changes)
-Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (attachment or preoccupation w/ unusual objects)
-Hyper- or hypo-activity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment (need to touch things, indifference to pain/temp)


What are the core deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

-Inability to relate to others and to take perspective (cognitively, emotionally)
-Difficulty to perceive and understand the overall meaning of events


How is Asperger's Disorder defined as an autism spectrum disorder?

-Higher functioning end of spectrum
-Speech is okay, but communication is impaired
-usually involves a single interest that is pursued obsessively


What is Savants? Who has it?

-Some autistic individuals have savant skills
-Special memory abilities in the areas of music, calculation, or drawing (photographic memory)


What is the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

1 in 88 children


When is the onset of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Evident by age 3, but usually earlier


What is the course of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Life long disorder, but much improved by early intervention


What is the gender ratio of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

5:1 (males: females)


What are the neurobiological factors in autism?

-Genetic factors
-Age of father
-Cerebellum abnormalities
-Amygdala and hippocampus abnormalities
-Fewer connections in corpus callosum
-Abnormal frontal lobe functioning
-More EEG abnormalities
-More pregnancy and birth complications
-Excessive brain growth in first year of life (faulty neuronal trimming)


What are the treatments of autism?

-Behavioral modification
-SSRIs of OCD, anxiety symptoms
-Mood stabilizers and antidepressants
-Meds for agitation in low dosages (mood stabilizers, antipsychotics)


What is the criteria of mental retardation? Onset?

-Below avg intellectual functioning (IQ < 70)
-Poor adaptive behavior
-Onset before age 18