Flashcards in Chapter 1: History Deck (42):
Define the 4 D's of abnormal psychology.
-Deviance = behavior, thoughts, emotions that differ from a society's norms
-Distress = unpleasant and upsetting to the person
-Dysfunction = interfering with the person's ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
-Danger = to oneself or others
According to clinical theorist Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have what 3 essential features?
-Sufferer = seeks relief
-Healer = trained, socially accepted whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer
-Series of contacts between the healer and sufferer
Describe the supernatural view of abnormality in ancient times.
-Human body and mind = battleground between external forces of good and evil
-Abnormal behavior = victory by evil spirits (demon possession)
-Cure = force demons out of victim's body
What is trephining? What was it supposed to treat? What was the goal?
-Stone instrument used to cut away a circular section of skull
-Performed to treat hallucinations or melancholia
-Opening the skull --> release evil spirits
What is exorcism? Purpose? Who performed them? How?
-Coax evil spirits to leave or to make person's body an uncomfortable place in which to live
-Shaman recites prayers, plead with evil spirits, insult spirits, perform magic, make loud noises, have person drink bitter potions, torture, starvation
Who was Hippocrates? What did he propose about abnormal behavior?
-Father of modern medicine
-Mental illnesses arise from internal physical/biological probs
-Imbalance of humors can bring about mental illness
-Heredity plays important role in mental illness
-Psychosocial factors also play a role (upbringing, environment)
Define humor. What are Hippocrates' 4 humors?
-Bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning
-Choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguinic
What is melancholia?
Depression, unshakable sadness supposed to be caused by the imbalance of humors
What is mania?
A state of frenzied activity supposed to be caused by the imbalance of humors
What is hysteria?
Erratic, overly emotional behavior supposed to be caused by the imbalance of humors
What was Hippocrates' treatment ethic?
First do no harm!
What is mass madness? When did this occur?
-Large numbers of people shared delusions and hallucinations
What is tarantism?
-St. Vitus's Dance
-People suddenly start to jump, dance, go into convulsions b/c are convinced they've been bitten and possessed by a tarantula
What is lycanthropy?
-Belief of being possessed by wolves or other animals
What was Bedlam?
-Bethlehem Hospital in London
-First institution specializing in the care of mentally ill --> asylum
-Popular tourist attraction
When did the moral treatment movement begin in Europe?
Who was Phillipe Pinel? What did he do?
-Reformed 2 large psychiatric hospitals in Paris
-Argued that patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated w/ sympathy and kindness
-Removed chains, provided well lit and ventilated rooms, gave patients productive things to do
Who was William Tuke? What did he do?
-Founded York Retreat in England (rural estate where 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses)
-Patients treated w/ rest, talk, prayer, group therapy, manual productive labor
-Returned patients to community without use of medication
Who was Benjamin Rush? What did he do?
-Father of American Psychiatry
-Developed human approaches to treatment
-Hired intelligent and sensitive attendants to read, talk to patients, take them on regular walks
Who was Dorothea Dix? What did she do?
-School teacher turned social reformer
-Fundraised enough to reform 30 mental hospitals in the U.S.
-Made humane care a public and political concern in the U.S.
What factors led to the deterioration of state hospitals?
-Poor patient care and neglect
-Not enough staff or abusive staff
What is hydrotherapy? What does it do?
Patients sprayed by water, wrapped in wet packs, water boarded to stimulate them
What is malaria therapy? What does it do?
What is insulin therapy?What does it do?
-Makes blood sugar drop
-Patient slips into a coma and experience episodes of convulsing, dry shock (full brain seizure)
-Injections of glucose brought patients out of insulin-induced coma
What is a lobotomy? What does it do?
-Surgical cutting of certain nerve fibers in the brain
-Severing of the connections between the frontal lobes and lower regions of brain
What is early electroshock therapy? What does it do?
Supposed to shock system into some form of sanity
What were the reasons for closing state hospitals between 1955 and 1975?
-First effective medications available starting mid 1950s --> made it possible to treat ill on outpatient basis
-Civil rights movement --> new legislation making involuntary hospitalization more difficult
-Financial concerns --> hospitalization very expensive & community mental health centers underfunded
Somatogenic vs. psychogenic perspective
-Somatogenic = view that abnormal psychological f functioning has physical causes
-Psychological = view that chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
What is hypnotism? Who is assosiated with this technique?
-Procedure that places people in a trance-like mental state in which they become extremely suggestible
-Friedrich Anton Mesmer
What is the technique of psychoanalysis? Who developed this?
-A form of discussion in which clinicians help troubled people gain insight into their unconscious psychological processes
What are psychotropic medications? What kinds of drugs does this include?
-Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction
-Includes antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antianxiety drugs
How many of the chronically homeless individuals in the inner cities are severely mentally ill?
At least half
Explain criminalization of the mentally ill
Incarceration, mostly in county jails, due to acting differently/inappropriately, not being able to correct actions, or making mistakes (forgetting court date)
What is emergency room boarding?
-Mentally ill sit and wait to be treated
-Hard to find hospital bed for them
-Might get a shot of something to temporarily fix problem
-Back on the streets
What are norms?
A society's stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
A people's common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, tech, and arts
What is an asylum?
-A type of institution that provides care for persons with mental disorders
-Most became virtual prisons
Define moral treatment.
19th century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment
What are state hospitals?
State-run public mental institutions in the U.S.
Define deinstitutionalization. What made it possible?
-The practice of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public hospitals
-Made possible by the discovery of medications
What is positive psychology?
Study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities