Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality Deck (78):
1

What are models? Another name for them?

-Aka paradigms
-Set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations

2

What is a neuron? How many make up the brain?

-A nerve cell
-100 billion

3

What is the cortex? What structures does it include?

-Outer layer of the brain
-Frontal and temporal lobes

4

What does the amygdala do? When is it in overdrive?

-Plays a key role in emotional therapy (processes emotional responses)
-In overdrive during panic attacks, PTSD, flashbacks

5

What does the hippocampus do?

-Helps regulate emotions and memory
-Translates short term memory into long term memory (declarative knowledge)

6

What does the thalamus do? What disorder is it associated with?

-Relay station for incoming sensory info
-Schizophrenia = difficulty differentiating important vs. unimportant stimuli

7

What does the basal ganglia do?

Plays a crucial role in planning and producing movement

8

What is a synapse?

The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another

9

What is a neurotransmitter?

A chemical that is released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space, and is received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons

10

What is a receptor?

A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter

11

What are hormones? What do they do?

-Chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream
-Propel body organs into action

12

How are mental disorders related to the endocrine system?

-Mental disorders sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system
-Hormones, appetite, temp control, etc. can be altered b/c of psychological disorders

13

What are genes? How are they related to abnormal behavior?

-Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits
-Can make individuals more prone to certain disorders

14

What is norepinephrine? What does it depend on? Significance?

-A very general NT
-Function depends on where in the brain it occurs
-Fight or flight response (alarm response of ANS)

15

What is serotonin? Significance of low levels?

-NT associated w/ mood, sleep
-Regulation of impulses
-Lower levels associated w/ greater vulnerability to aggressive behaviors, self-destructive tendencies, suicidal urges, OCD

16

What is dopamine? Significance of high levels in brain?

-Outgoing, exploratory behavior
-All pleasure seeking behaviors (ex. addiction) involve the dopamine systems
-Excess of dopamine in brain can cause hallucinations and delusions

17

What is gaba? Significant for what disorder? What facilitates it?

-Inhibitory NT --> reduces overall arousal
-Important for anxiety disorder
-Benzodiazepines facilitate its action

18

What are psychotropic medications?

-Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction
-Mainly affect emotions and thought processes

19

How do psychotropic medications work?

-Increasing/decreasing the production of a NT
-Triggering/blocking the release of a NT
-Increase/decrease the production of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Trigger/block the release of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Block the reuptake of a NT
-Mimic the action of a NT

20

What are the main classes of psychotropic medications?

-Antianxiety drugs
-Antidepressants
-Mood stabilizers
-Antipsychotic drugs
-Stimulant drugs

21

What do antianxiety drugs do?

-Help reduce tension and anxiety
-Minor tranquilizers

22

What do antidepressants do?

Help improve the mood of people who are depressed

23

What do mood stabilizers do? What disorder are they most used for?

Help steady the moods of those w/ a bipolar disorder (mood swings from mania to depression)

24

What do antipsychotic drugs do?

Help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders

25

What is the only type of psychotropic drug that is highly addictive?

Antianxiety drugs

26

What is electroconvulsive therapy? What patient condition is it most used on?

-A form of biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead
-Used primarily on depressed patients

27

What is psychosurgery? Aka what?

-Aka neurosurgery
-Brain surgery for mental disorders

28

What is light therapy?

LOOKUP

29

What is transcranial magnetic stimulation?

LOOKUP

30

Who founded the psychodynamic model?

Sigmund Freud

31

What is the id? What principles does it follow?

-Psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, impulses
-Pleasure principle = always seeking gratification
-All id instincts tend to be sexual --> libido fuels the id

32

What is the ego? What principle does it follow?

-Psychological force that employs reason
-Reality principle = knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses

33

List the ego defense mechanisms.

-Repression
-Denial
-Projection
-Rationalization
-Displacement
-Intellectualization
-Regression

34

What is the superego?

-Psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals
-Conscience

35

What does it mean to be fixated?

Condition in which the id, ego, and superego don't mature properly and are stuck at an early stage of development

36

What is ego theory?

Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of ego and considers it an independent force

37

What is self theory?

Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self - our unified personality

38

What is object relations theory?

Psychodynamic theory that view the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior

39

What is free association?

A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind (even if it seems unimportant)

40

What is resistance?

An unconscious refusal to fully participate in therapy

41

What is transference?

Redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated w/ important figures in a patient's life

42

What is countertransference?

Redirection towards the patient of feelings associated w/ important figures in the psychotherapist's life

43

What is catharsis?

Reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems

44

Describe the process of working through.

The psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming ones problems

45

What is relational psychoanalytic therapy?

-Considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions
-Calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings to establish more equal partnerships w/ them

46

Who are the founders of classical conditioning?

-Ivan Pavlov
-John B. Watson

47

What is the basic principle of classical conditioning?

Associating events with naturally occurring reflexes

48

What is classical conditioning?

A process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeated occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response

49

What are the therapy applications for classical conditioning?

-Phobias
-Traumatic memories and flashbacks
-Chemical addictions
-Maladaptive sexual fantasies (getting turned on by red shoes)

50

Who founded operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner

51

What is the principle of operant conditioning?

Associating behaviors with their consequences
-reward/satisfaction = more likely to be repeated
-punishment = less likely to occur

52

What are the therapy applications of operant conditioning?

-Behavioral problems (acting out)
-Building of new skills (autism, eating w/ utensils)

53

What is the principle of modeling?

Learning by watching others and imitating their behaviors

54

Who founded modeling?

Albert Bandura

55

What are the therapy applications of modeling?

-Animal phobias & other specific phobias
-Assertiveness training for social phobias

56

What is systematic desensitization?

A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of w/ intense fear to the objects or situations they dread

57

What is self-efficacy?

Belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary

58

What is the basic assumption of cognitive models?

It's not what happens to us that causes us negative emotions but how we think about and interpret what happens to us

59

Who are the founders of cognitive therapy?

-Albert Ellis
-Aaron Beck

60

What are some applications of cognitive therapy?

-Depression = correct negative thinking patterns
-Anxiety disorders
-Eating disorders = restructure distorted self perceptions
-Substance related disorders = restructure all or nothing thinking
-Personality disorders = reframe irrational thinking

61

Who are the founders of the humanistic model?

-Abraham Maslow
-Carl Rogers

62

What is the principle of the humanistic-existential model?

Develop one's full potential and live an authentic self-determined life

63

How do humanistic existentialists define "psychological health"?

More than just the mere absence of psychiatric illness

64

What are some concepts that define the humanistic-existential model?

-Self actualization
-Creativity, love, authenticity
-Focus on inner strength
-Freedom of choice
-Take responsibility for one's life and choices
-Face fears, come to terms with the inevitability of death

65

What is self actualization?

Humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth

66

Describe Carl Roger's client-centered therapy.

-Non-directive approach (didn't impose his own beliefs on client)
-Unconditional positive regard
-Reflection and validation of feelings
-Active listening
-Empathy for client

67

What are some therapy applications of the humanistic-existential model?

-Low self esteem individuals
-Individuals with no actual skill deficit
-Growth therapy to develop one's full inner potential

68

What is Gestalt therapy?

-Developed by Fritz Perls
-Guides clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance
-Techniques = skillful frustration, role playing, rules

69

What are the advantages of group therapy?

-Group reduces sense of isolation
-Emotional support from group (group cohesiveness)
-Interpersonal learning
-Practice new skills
-Education
-Cheaper than individual therapy

70

What are the applications of group therapy?

-Panic disorder
-Eating disorders
-Substance abuse treatment
-Anger management

71

Describe the aspects of couple's therapy.

-Teach clear, direct communication
-Teach problem identification and problem solving
-Identify and understand mutual needs

72

What is the basic idea behind the family systems theory?

Families are interdependent systems whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules

73

Compare & contrast enmeshed vs. disengaged families.

-Enmeshed = members are grossly over involved in each other's activities, thoughts, feelings
-Disengaged = rigid boundaries between members
*both are dysfunctional

74

What are some applications of family systems models?

-Anxiety disorders in children (separation anxiety)
-Eating disorders in adolescents
-Acting out behavior in children

75

What is the main idea behind sociocultural models?

To really understand abnormal behavior, a much larger historical, cultural, and societal context is needed

76

What are the implications and interventions of sociocultural models?

-Prevention
-Early intervention
-Community education
-Self-help and support groups
-Identify social/cultural obstacles to recovery (poverty, prejudice, violence, lack of access to services)

77

What is the bio-psycho-social model?

Integration of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive approaches

78

What is the diathesis-stress model?

-Psychological disorders result from a combo of predispositions (genes, traits) that meet w/ stress factors (trauma, loss)