Flashcards in Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality Deck (78):
What are models? Another name for them?
-Set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations
What is a neuron? How many make up the brain?
-A nerve cell
What is the cortex? What structures does it include?
-Outer layer of the brain
-Frontal and temporal lobes
What does the amygdala do? When is it in overdrive?
-Plays a key role in emotional therapy (processes emotional responses)
-In overdrive during panic attacks, PTSD, flashbacks
What does the hippocampus do?
-Helps regulate emotions and memory
-Translates short term memory into long term memory (declarative knowledge)
What does the thalamus do? What disorder is it associated with?
-Relay station for incoming sensory info
-Schizophrenia = difficulty differentiating important vs. unimportant stimuli
What does the basal ganglia do?
Plays a crucial role in planning and producing movement
What is a synapse?
The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical that is released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space, and is received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
What is a receptor?
A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
What are hormones? What do they do?
-Chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream
-Propel body organs into action
How are mental disorders related to the endocrine system?
-Mental disorders sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system
-Hormones, appetite, temp control, etc. can be altered b/c of psychological disorders
What are genes? How are they related to abnormal behavior?
-Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits
-Can make individuals more prone to certain disorders
What is norepinephrine? What does it depend on? Significance?
-A very general NT
-Function depends on where in the brain it occurs
-Fight or flight response (alarm response of ANS)
What is serotonin? Significance of low levels?
-NT associated w/ mood, sleep
-Regulation of impulses
-Lower levels associated w/ greater vulnerability to aggressive behaviors, self-destructive tendencies, suicidal urges, OCD
What is dopamine? Significance of high levels in brain?
-Outgoing, exploratory behavior
-All pleasure seeking behaviors (ex. addiction) involve the dopamine systems
-Excess of dopamine in brain can cause hallucinations and delusions
What is gaba? Significant for what disorder? What facilitates it?
-Inhibitory NT --> reduces overall arousal
-Important for anxiety disorder
-Benzodiazepines facilitate its action
What are psychotropic medications?
-Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction
-Mainly affect emotions and thought processes
How do psychotropic medications work?
-Increasing/decreasing the production of a NT
-Triggering/blocking the release of a NT
-Increase/decrease the production of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Trigger/block the release of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Block the reuptake of a NT
-Mimic the action of a NT
What are the main classes of psychotropic medications?
What do antianxiety drugs do?
-Help reduce tension and anxiety
What do antidepressants do?
Help improve the mood of people who are depressed
What do mood stabilizers do? What disorder are they most used for?
Help steady the moods of those w/ a bipolar disorder (mood swings from mania to depression)
What do antipsychotic drugs do?
Help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders
What is the only type of psychotropic drug that is highly addictive?
What is electroconvulsive therapy? What patient condition is it most used on?
-A form of biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead
-Used primarily on depressed patients
What is psychosurgery? Aka what?
-Brain surgery for mental disorders
What is light therapy?
What is transcranial magnetic stimulation?
Who founded the psychodynamic model?
What is the id? What principles does it follow?
-Psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, impulses
-Pleasure principle = always seeking gratification
-All id instincts tend to be sexual --> libido fuels the id
What is the ego? What principle does it follow?
-Psychological force that employs reason
-Reality principle = knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses
List the ego defense mechanisms.
What is the superego?
-Psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals
What does it mean to be fixated?
Condition in which the id, ego, and superego don't mature properly and are stuck at an early stage of development
What is ego theory?
Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of ego and considers it an independent force
What is self theory?
Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self - our unified personality
What is object relations theory?
Psychodynamic theory that view the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior
What is free association?
A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind (even if it seems unimportant)
What is resistance?
An unconscious refusal to fully participate in therapy
What is transference?
Redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated w/ important figures in a patient's life
What is countertransference?
Redirection towards the patient of feelings associated w/ important figures in the psychotherapist's life
What is catharsis?
Reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems
Describe the process of working through.
The psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming ones problems
What is relational psychoanalytic therapy?
-Considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions
-Calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings to establish more equal partnerships w/ them
Who are the founders of classical conditioning?
-John B. Watson
What is the basic principle of classical conditioning?
Associating events with naturally occurring reflexes
What is classical conditioning?
A process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeated occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response
What are the therapy applications for classical conditioning?
-Traumatic memories and flashbacks
-Maladaptive sexual fantasies (getting turned on by red shoes)
Who founded operant conditioning?
What is the principle of operant conditioning?
Associating behaviors with their consequences
-reward/satisfaction = more likely to be repeated
-punishment = less likely to occur
What are the therapy applications of operant conditioning?
-Behavioral problems (acting out)
-Building of new skills (autism, eating w/ utensils)
What is the principle of modeling?
Learning by watching others and imitating their behaviors
Who founded modeling?
What are the therapy applications of modeling?
-Animal phobias & other specific phobias
-Assertiveness training for social phobias
What is systematic desensitization?
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of w/ intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
What is self-efficacy?
Belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary
What is the basic assumption of cognitive models?
It's not what happens to us that causes us negative emotions but how we think about and interpret what happens to us
Who are the founders of cognitive therapy?
What are some applications of cognitive therapy?
-Depression = correct negative thinking patterns
-Eating disorders = restructure distorted self perceptions
-Substance related disorders = restructure all or nothing thinking
-Personality disorders = reframe irrational thinking
Who are the founders of the humanistic model?
What is the principle of the humanistic-existential model?
Develop one's full potential and live an authentic self-determined life
How do humanistic existentialists define "psychological health"?
More than just the mere absence of psychiatric illness
What are some concepts that define the humanistic-existential model?
-Creativity, love, authenticity
-Focus on inner strength
-Freedom of choice
-Take responsibility for one's life and choices
-Face fears, come to terms with the inevitability of death
What is self actualization?
Humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth
Describe Carl Roger's client-centered therapy.
-Non-directive approach (didn't impose his own beliefs on client)
-Unconditional positive regard
-Reflection and validation of feelings
-Empathy for client
What are some therapy applications of the humanistic-existential model?
-Low self esteem individuals
-Individuals with no actual skill deficit
-Growth therapy to develop one's full inner potential
What is Gestalt therapy?
-Developed by Fritz Perls
-Guides clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance
-Techniques = skillful frustration, role playing, rules
What are the advantages of group therapy?
-Group reduces sense of isolation
-Emotional support from group (group cohesiveness)
-Practice new skills
-Cheaper than individual therapy
What are the applications of group therapy?
-Substance abuse treatment
Describe the aspects of couple's therapy.
-Teach clear, direct communication
-Teach problem identification and problem solving
-Identify and understand mutual needs
What is the basic idea behind the family systems theory?
Families are interdependent systems whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
Compare & contrast enmeshed vs. disengaged families.
-Enmeshed = members are grossly over involved in each other's activities, thoughts, feelings
-Disengaged = rigid boundaries between members
*both are dysfunctional
What are some applications of family systems models?
-Anxiety disorders in children (separation anxiety)
-Eating disorders in adolescents
-Acting out behavior in children
What is the main idea behind sociocultural models?
To really understand abnormal behavior, a much larger historical, cultural, and societal context is needed
What are the implications and interventions of sociocultural models?
-Self-help and support groups
-Identify social/cultural obstacles to recovery (poverty, prejudice, violence, lack of access to services)
What is the bio-psycho-social model?
Integration of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive approaches