Flashcards in Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality Deck (78)
What are models? Another name for them?
-Set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations
What is a neuron? How many make up the brain?
-A nerve cell
What is the cortex? What structures does it include?
-Outer layer of the brain
-Frontal and temporal lobes
What does the amygdala do? When is it in overdrive?
-Plays a key role in emotional therapy (processes emotional responses)
-In overdrive during panic attacks, PTSD, flashbacks
What does the hippocampus do?
-Helps regulate emotions and memory
-Translates short term memory into long term memory (declarative knowledge)
What does the thalamus do? What disorder is it associated with?
-Relay station for incoming sensory info
-Schizophrenia = difficulty differentiating important vs. unimportant stimuli
What does the basal ganglia do?
Plays a crucial role in planning and producing movement
What is a synapse?
The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical that is released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space, and is received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
What is a receptor?
A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
What are hormones? What do they do?
-Chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream
-Propel body organs into action
How are mental disorders related to the endocrine system?
-Mental disorders sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system
-Hormones, appetite, temp control, etc. can be altered b/c of psychological disorders
What are genes? How are they related to abnormal behavior?
-Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits
-Can make individuals more prone to certain disorders
What is norepinephrine? What does it depend on? Significance?
-A very general NT
-Function depends on where in the brain it occurs
-Fight or flight response (alarm response of ANS)
What is serotonin? Significance of low levels?
-NT associated w/ mood, sleep
-Regulation of impulses
-Lower levels associated w/ greater vulnerability to aggressive behaviors, self-destructive tendencies, suicidal urges, OCD
What is dopamine? Significance of high levels in brain?
-Outgoing, exploratory behavior
-All pleasure seeking behaviors (ex. addiction) involve the dopamine systems
-Excess of dopamine in brain can cause hallucinations and delusions
What is gaba? Significant for what disorder? What facilitates it?
-Inhibitory NT --> reduces overall arousal
-Important for anxiety disorder
-Benzodiazepines facilitate its action
What are psychotropic medications?
-Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction
-Mainly affect emotions and thought processes
How do psychotropic medications work?
-Increasing/decreasing the production of a NT
-Triggering/blocking the release of a NT
-Increase/decrease the production of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Trigger/block the release of a substance that deactivates the NT
-Block the reuptake of a NT
-Mimic the action of a NT
What are the main classes of psychotropic medications?
What do antianxiety drugs do?
-Help reduce tension and anxiety
What do antidepressants do?
Help improve the mood of people who are depressed
What do mood stabilizers do? What disorder are they most used for?
Help steady the moods of those w/ a bipolar disorder (mood swings from mania to depression)
What do antipsychotic drugs do?
Help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders
What is the only type of psychotropic drug that is highly addictive?
What is electroconvulsive therapy? What patient condition is it most used on?
-A form of biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead
-Used primarily on depressed patients
What is psychosurgery? Aka what?
-Brain surgery for mental disorders
What is light therapy?
What is transcranial magnetic stimulation?