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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders Deck (104)
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1

Define fear.

The CNS's physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one's well-being

2

Define anxiety.

The CNS's physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger

3

What is the DSM-V definition of GAD?

-Excessive anxiety and apprehension that isn't limited to particular situations
-Worry is difficult to control
-Symptoms (at least 3) = muscle tension, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, feeling on edge
-Symptoms must have been present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or dysfunction

4

When is the onset of GAD?

0-20 years

5

What course does GAD take?

-Often onset in childhood/adolescence
-Often a chronic course
-Worsened by increase in life stressors

6

What is the one year prevalence of GAD?

3.1%

7

What is the lifetime prevalence of GAD?

5%

8

What is the only anxiety disorder that is found at a higher rate in the elderly than the overall population?

GAD

9

What is the gender ratio of GAD?

2:1 (female:male)

10

How does GAD tend to run in families?

-Modeling of anxious behavior by overprotective, anxious parents
-Genetic factors (serotonin, GABA)

11

What is the prevalence of GAD among low income people compared to total pop? African American? Hispanic American? Elderly?

-Low income = higher
-African American = higher
-Hispanic American = same
-Elderly = Higher

12

Which type of psychotherapy works best for GAD?

Drug therapy

13

What medication is used to treat GAD?

-Antidepressants
-Benzodiazepines
-Buspar
-Neurotonin

14

What is the prevalence of specific phobias among low income people compared to total pop? African American? Hispanic American? Elderly?

-Low income = higher
-African American = higher
-Hispanic American = higher
-Elderly = lower

15

What is the prevalence of social phobias among low income people compared to total pop? African American? Hispanic American? Elderly?

-Low income = higher
-African American = higher
-Hispanic American = same
-Elderly = lower

16

What is the prevalence of panic disorder among low income people compared to total pop? African American? Hispanic American? Elderly?

-Low income = higher
-African American = same
-Hispanic American = same
-Elderly = lower

17

What is the prevalence of OCD among low income people compared to total pop? African American? Hispanic American? Elderly?

-Low income = higher
-African American = same
-Hispanic American = same
-Elderly = lower

18

What is client-centered therapy? Who developed it?

-Carl Rogers
-Humanistic therapy in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing, accurately, and conveying genuineness

19

What are basic irrational assumptions? What disorder are they associated with?

-Inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people w/ various psychological probs
-Albert Ellis suggested that these are the primary cause of GAD

20

What is rational-emotive therapy? Who developed it?

-Albert Ellis
-Cognitive therapy of GAD that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking causing their psychological disorder

21

What are family pedigree studies?

Research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person w/ a disorder have the same disorder

22

What is the most common group of antianxiety drugs?

Benzodiazepines

23

What is GABA? Significance of low activity?

-Inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
-Low activity linked to GAD

24

What is the role of GABA in GAD?

-Continuous firing of neurons (anxiety, fear) triggers a feedback system --> brain and body reduce levels of excitability by releasing GABA --> GABA binds to receptors and instructs neurons to stop firing --> anxiety, fear subsides
-Peeps w/ GAD might have probs in their anxiety feedback system (too few GABA receptors, GABA receptors that don't readily capture the neurotransmitter)

25

What comprises the brain circuit that produces anxiety reactions?

-Prefrontal cortex
-Anterior cingulate cortex
-Amygdala

26

How do benzodiazepines and GABA play a role in GAD?

Benzodiazepines bind to GABA-A receptors --> increase ability of GABA to bind to them --> improve GABA's ability to stop neuron firing and reduce anxiety

27

What are sedative-hypnotic drugs?

Drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them fall asleep at higher doses

28

What is relaxation training? Main idea?

-A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
-Physical relaxation --> psychological relaxation

29

What is biofeedback?

A technique in which a client is given info about physiological reactions as they occur (HR, muscle tension) and learns to control the reactions voluntarily

30

What is an electromyograph (EMG)? What treatment and disorder is this associated with?

-A device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body
-Biofeedback for GAD