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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Mood Disorders Deck (89)
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Define depression.

A low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming


Define mania.

-Opposite of depression
-State of breathless euphoria and frenzied energy in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking


How is depression a "spectrum disorder"?

Spectrum from feeling blue all the way to psychotic or suicidal depression


What is unipolar depression?

-Depression w/o a history of mania
-Return to nearly normal mood when depression lifts


What are the different categories of symptoms of depression? Examples?

-Emotional = sadness, crying, anhedonia, anger, anxiety
-Cognitive = poor memory & concentration, inability to make decisions, pessimism
-Physical = general pain, headaches, low energy, decreased appetite, sleep, sex drive


What is the DSM-V definition of a major depressive episode?

For at least 2 weeks, at least 5 of the following symptoms must be met. (at least one of the first 2 must be present)
-Depressed mood most of the day
-Anhedonia = diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities previously enjoyed
-Significant weight loss or weight gain or significant change in appetite
-Insomnia or hypersomnia
-Psychomotor retardation or psychomotor agitation nearly everyday
-Indecisiveness or diminished ability to concentrate
-Fatigue or loss of energy nearly everyday
-Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
-Recurrent thoughts of death and/or suicidal ideation


What is the DSM-V definition of major depressive disorder?

-Entails a history of one or more major depressive episodes
-Symptoms severe enough o cause clinically significant distress or impairment


List the specifiers or MDD?

-Single episode vs. recurrent episodes
-Mild, moderate, severe MD episodes
-With psychotic features
-With mixed features
-With anxious distress
-With seasonal pattern
-With peripartum onset
-With atypical features
-With catatonic features


What are the factors that contribute to a single episode vs. recurrent episodes of MDD?

-75% of those who have one episode will have at least one other
-If only one episode, it was likely in response to a major life stressor
-W/o treatment, an MDD sufferer has on avg 5-6 episodes in a lifetime
-An untreated MD episode lasts 8-10 months
-Recovery after an episode may be complete or mild depression left
-Dangers of repeated untreated episodes for long-term brain dysregulation


Describe the psychotic features of MDD.

-Psychotic symptoms = breaks w/ reality, delusions, hallucinations
-Always associated w/ a severe episode, but severe episodes don't have to include psychosis


Describe the mixed features of MDD.

-Presence of manic symptoms pointing at possibility of underlying bipolar disorder
-Feeling mostly depressed but combined w/ increased energy level, irritability, restlessness, impulsiveness, high risk of suicide


Describe the anxious distress specifier of MDD.

Anxiety symptoms beyond what would be expected for depressive state


Describe the seasonal pattern of MDD.

-Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
-Low energy, oversleeping, craving carbs


Describe the peripartum onset of MDD.

Onset of symptoms during or after pregnancy


Describe the atypical features of MDD.

-Significant weight gain and increase in appetite
-Long-standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity


Describe the catatonic features of MDD.

-Motoric immobility or stupor
-Not responding to instructions
-Odd, bizarre postures
-Echoalia or echopraxia (repeating others speech or movements)
-Motionless alternates w/ agitation


Endogenous vs. Exogenic depression

-Endogenous = response to internal factors
-Exogenic = aka reactive; follows clear-cut stressful events


What is the DSM-V definition of persistent depressive disorder?

-Chronic pattern of depression that has lasted for at least 2 years
-Person experiences depressive symptoms that are mild, moderate, or severe


What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

Marked change in mood during a woman's premenstrual period


What is the one year prevalence of MDD?



What is the gender ratio for MDD?

2:1 (female: male)


What is the typical age onset of MDD?

24-29 years old


What is the percentage of people currently receiving treatment for MDD?



What is the one year prevalence of dysthymic disorder?



What is the gender ratio of dysthymic disorder?

Between 3:2 and 2:1


What is the typical age onset of dysthymic disorder?

10-25 years old


What is the percentage of people currently receiving treatment for dysthymic disorder?



What are the different theories as to why women are more prone to depression?

-Artifact theory
-Hormone explanation
-Life stress theory
-Body dissatisfaction explanation
-Lack of control theory
-Rumination theory


Explain the artifact theory of gender and depression.

-Women and men equally prone to depression, but clinicians often fail to detect depression in men
-Women display more emotional symptoms
-Men find it less socially acceptable to admit feeling depressed or to seek treatment


Explain the hormone theory of gender and depression.

-Hormone changes trigger depression in women
-Gender differences in rates of depression span the same years of hormone level changes in women