17. Nationalism, Realpolitick, and Realism: 1850-1871 Flashcards Preview

Ap European History > 17. Nationalism, Realpolitick, and Realism: 1850-1871 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 17. Nationalism, Realpolitick, and Realism: 1850-1871 Deck (33):
1

What happened in France in 1848

Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew Louis Napoleon was elected president of Second French Republic.

2

What happened just 4 years after the establishment of the Second French Republic?

Louis Napoleon declared himself emperor Napoleon III of the Second Empire

3

What did Napoleon III do with French economy

Industrialized

4

Napoleon III rebuilt/redesigned Paris by hiring this guy:

Haussmann

5

What were Napoleon III's ambitions/goals

Win international glory for France

6

Crimean War years?
Basically who vs. who?

- 1853-1856 (basically right after revolutions of 1848. the first major even after 1848 and first war since 1815 CoVienna)
- Russia vs. Other countries

7

Why did Russia enter the Crimean War

to get access to the Mediterranean by taking Turkey

8

what countries entered the Crimean War against Russia and why

- France and Britain: to retain balance of power
- Sardinia: hoped to gain support for Italian unification

9

Direct result of the Crimean War

Russia lost humiliatingly

10

Tsar Alexander II's major reform in 1861

Emancipation Edict of the serfs

11

Alexander II's new system of regional self-government through elected assemblies:

Zemstvos

12

Italian nationalists looked to this kingdom for leadership for the cause of unification:

Piedmont-Sardinia

13

in 1852, Piedmont's king Emmanuel II appointed a prime minister:

Count Camillo di CAVOUR

14

What is Realpolitik

successful combination of power politics and secret diplomacy.
"the politics of reality"

15

Who was Cavour's greatest enemy and so who did he ally with

-Austria was biggest obstacle to Italian unity
- Allied with Napoleon III

16

Cavour's achievement in Italian Unification:

By defeated Austrians, he annexed most of northern Italy.

17

Who was the main unifier in the South of Italy?
What was his group called and what did he do?

Garibaldi, Red Shirts, successfully liberated kingdom of the Two Sicilies

18

The year of proclamation of the kingdom of Italy with Victor Emmanuel II as king

1861

19

Why was the Italian Unification incomplete? 2 main reasons

- Pope remained hostile to the new Italian state
- problems still plagued the new state. Northern italy was urban while southern remained backward, and heavy debt

20

the main dude in the unification of Germany serving as prime minister.
What country?

Otto von Bismarck
Prussia

21

Who did Bismarck go to War against? 3 countries:

Denmark, Austria, then France

22

What was Prussia's war with Austria in1866 called?

Seven Weeks' War

23

What was the result of the 7 weeks' war-
who won?
what was created?

Austria lost,
dissolution of the German Confederation and creation of North German Confederation dominated by Prussia

24

Consequence of Prussia's war with France-
who won?
how was it settled?

France lost
France ceded Alsace and Lorraine,

25

significance of France giving up Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia?

They were rich deposits of coal and iron.
Big blow to France's economy and pride

26

End result of Prussia's continuous victories in terms of national strength?

Germany became the strongest state on the continent, rivaling Great Britain

27

What happened due to large ethnic discontent in Austria?

Formation of dual monarchy: Austria-Hungary

28

What important ethnic group was also under Hapsburg Austrian rule, who would later be a threat to the peace of Europe?

Slavs, slavic regions

29

Who said "The great questions of our day cannot be solved by speeches and majority votes--that was the great error of 1848 and 1849--but by blood and iron"

Bismarck

30

Because of continuous working classes' demand for electoral reform, what were passed in 1832 then again in 1867 that increasingly extended the suffrage to workers in Britain?

Reform bills.

31

Which group was still not affected by the Reform Bill of 1867?

British women

32

art style after romanticism?

realism

33

key characteristics of realism?
how did realist artists view industrial life

- focus on daily concerns of real people such as workers and peasants
- criticized the cruelty of industry