Flashcards in 17. Nationalism, Realpolitick, and Realism: 1850-1871 Deck (33):
What happened in France in 1848
Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew Louis Napoleon was elected president of Second French Republic.
What happened just 4 years after the establishment of the Second French Republic?
Louis Napoleon declared himself emperor Napoleon III of the Second Empire
What did Napoleon III do with French economy
Napoleon III rebuilt/redesigned Paris by hiring this guy:
What were Napoleon III's ambitions/goals
Win international glory for France
Crimean War years?
Basically who vs. who?
- 1853-1856 (basically right after revolutions of 1848. the first major even after 1848 and first war since 1815 CoVienna)
- Russia vs. Other countries
Why did Russia enter the Crimean War
to get access to the Mediterranean by taking Turkey
what countries entered the Crimean War against Russia and why
- France and Britain: to retain balance of power
- Sardinia: hoped to gain support for Italian unification
Direct result of the Crimean War
Russia lost humiliatingly
Tsar Alexander II's major reform in 1861
Emancipation Edict of the serfs
Alexander II's new system of regional self-government through elected assemblies:
Italian nationalists looked to this kingdom for leadership for the cause of unification:
in 1852, Piedmont's king Emmanuel II appointed a prime minister:
Count Camillo di CAVOUR
What is Realpolitik
successful combination of power politics and secret diplomacy.
"the politics of reality"
Who was Cavour's greatest enemy and so who did he ally with
-Austria was biggest obstacle to Italian unity
- Allied with Napoleon III
Cavour's achievement in Italian Unification:
By defeated Austrians, he annexed most of northern Italy.
Who was the main unifier in the South of Italy?
What was his group called and what did he do?
Garibaldi, Red Shirts, successfully liberated kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The year of proclamation of the kingdom of Italy with Victor Emmanuel II as king
Why was the Italian Unification incomplete? 2 main reasons
- Pope remained hostile to the new Italian state
- problems still plagued the new state. Northern italy was urban while southern remained backward, and heavy debt
the main dude in the unification of Germany serving as prime minister.
Otto von Bismarck
Who did Bismarck go to War against? 3 countries:
Denmark, Austria, then France
What was Prussia's war with Austria in1866 called?
Seven Weeks' War
What was the result of the 7 weeks' war-
what was created?
dissolution of the German Confederation and creation of North German Confederation dominated by Prussia
Consequence of Prussia's war with France-
how was it settled?
France ceded Alsace and Lorraine,
significance of France giving up Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia?
They were rich deposits of coal and iron.
Big blow to France's economy and pride
End result of Prussia's continuous victories in terms of national strength?
Germany became the strongest state on the continent, rivaling Great Britain
What happened due to large ethnic discontent in Austria?
Formation of dual monarchy: Austria-Hungary
What important ethnic group was also under Hapsburg Austrian rule, who would later be a threat to the peace of Europe?
Slavs, slavic regions
Who said "The great questions of our day cannot be solved by speeches and majority votes--that was the great error of 1848 and 1849--but by blood and iron"
Because of continuous working classes' demand for electoral reform, what were passed in 1832 then again in 1867 that increasingly extended the suffrage to workers in Britain?
Which group was still not affected by the Reform Bill of 1867?
art style after romanticism?