6. Catholic Reformation, Wars of Religion Flashcards Preview

Ap European History > 6. Catholic Reformation, Wars of Religion > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6. Catholic Reformation, Wars of Religion Deck (25):
1

Which pope started the new generation of popes who began committing themselves to counter-reformation? From What year?

Pope Paul III, 1534

2

Council of Trent did:

1. Rejected protestant beliefs
2. Reformed church abuses such as indulgences
3. Resisted limiting papal authority

3

Jesuits =?
Why was is created

- Society of Jesus, authorized by Pope Paul III
- to combat protestantism + missionary

4

Baroque Art purpose?

works of art should be employed to stimulate religious piety/devotion

5

Characteristics of Baroque art

- used tenebrism: dramatic use of light & dark
- focus on dramatic moments

6

1556, what did Charles V of HRE do?

(NOTE: Peace of Augsburg happened 1555)

Voluntary abdication
- left his brother Ferdinand Holy Roman Emperor
- son Philip II as King of Spain

7

Philip II's ambitious goals:

1. Spanish power in Europe
2. Catholicism in Europe
3. defeat Ottoman Turks

8

Philip II vs. the Netherlands
full story

Philip's ill-considered actions provoked and united the Netherlands against Spanish. They converted to Calvinism. Duke of Parma of Spain was able to reaffirm 10 southern provinces back loyal to Spain. War for control of Netherlands continued till 1609, until a truce: the 7 northern provinces gained independence, known as Dutch. the southern provinces stayed Spanish Netherlands.

9

What did Philip do against England?
why?

- Spanish Armada
- mad at Elizabeth's interference in assisting the Dutch rebels.

10

Consequence of Philip's defeats in Netherlands and England:
On Spain itself?
On the Dutch?
In England?

- Spain began a long political and economic decline
- Dutch began golden age of commercial prosperity
- England's power increased as Spain's influence declined. They were free to colonize North America

11

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
year?
where?
describe?

- 1572
- Paris
- at Henry of Navarre (huguenot leader)'s wedding, Catholics kill thousands of Huguenots

12

Henry of Navarre = ?
How did he become king-war involved?

- Henry IV, first Bourbon king of France
- War of the Three Henrys

13

Who did Henry IV succeed? Year?
Major house change?

Henry III of House of Valois. 1589
Valois --> Bourbon

14

Who were the Politiques of France?
the leading politique?

- People who recognized that the French Religious Wars must be stopped
- Henry of Navarre

15

What did Henry IV say? why?

"Paris is worth a mass"
majority of French were Catholics, and when he couldn't win his kingdom back by conquest, he decided to save the country by converting to Catholicism. It was out of love of his country, thus making him a politique.

16

Henry issued this in 1598

Edict of Nantes, tolerated Calvinism and recognized the rights of French Protestants

17

Thirty Years' War
years?
basic conflict/reason?

- 1618 ~ 1648
- Religious conflicts in over 300 small principalities of HRE. So, basically, the Peace of Augsburg set up the war by granting "cuius regio, ejus religio"

18

1608, protestant states formed?
1609, catholic states formed?

- Protestant Union
- Catholic League
- each to defend their interests

19

The 4 phases of 30 years' war?

Bohemian Phase --> Danish Phase --> Swedish Phase --> French Phase

20

Phase 1 of 30 years' war
describe?
which side won more?

Bohemian Phase
- Began as religious civil war in Bohemia
- Ferdinand II's Catholic League vs. Frederick V's Protestant Union
- Catholic League won

21

Phase 2 of 30 Years' war
describe?
which side won more?

Danish Phase
- Lutheran ruler of Denmark intervene to support Protestants
- still, protestant side lost to catholics and imperial armies

22

Phase 3 of 30 Years' War
describe (major person)?
which side won more?

Swedish Phase
- Lutheran king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus intervenes to help Protestants
- finally, protestants defeat imperial forces, preventing the Hapsburgs from uniting Germany

23

Phase 4 of 30 Years' War
describe?
consequence?

French Phase
- France intervened on Protestant side (although they were catholics) to make sure no unity forms in Germany
- German commerce is destroyed

24

Which peace ended the Thirty Years' War?
year?

- 1648
- Peace of Westphalia

25

Consequences of the Thirty Years' War-
for German?
for France?

- Germany is destroyed, and a unification is delayed for 2 centuries
- France emerges as strongest power in Europe