22. Cold War and Beyond Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22. Cold War and Beyond Deck (32):
1

What is Containment

foreign policy designed to contain or block Soviet expansion

2

What was the Truman Doctrine's goal?
what did it do?

block the expansion of Soviet influence into Greece and Turkey
- $400 million in economic aid for Greece and Turkey

3

What was Marshall Plan

program of economic aid to
1)promote recovery of war-torn Europe while also
2)preventing the spread of Soviet influence

4

NATO Alliance
what is the significance in terms of US's pov

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a defensive military alliance
- Marked a decisive break from America's tradition of isolationism

5

How did Soviet Union respond to the NATO?
Who was in it?

Warsaw Pact, linking the Soviet Union with 7 Eastern European countries including Poland, East Germany

6

Germany after WWII: sequence of events:

Divided into 4 occupation zones --> Creation of West/East Germany

7

When Soviet Union cut off Western land access to West Berlin, How did Truman react?

Berlin Airlift

8

The Cold War can be described as:

test of wills between US and SU

9

In reviving the Economy of Western Europe, Jean Monnet, a French economic planner, contributed by coming up with a plan of economic cooperation: project to become known as the Schuman Plan. This plan led to the creation of ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community). ECSC's success led its six member nations to sign the Treaty of _______, creating the ________.

- Treaty of Rome
- European Economic Community (EEC)

10

What did EEC (aka Common Market) do among its members?

eliminated trade barriers, closely resembling a tariff union

11

Later, the Treaty of Maastricht did what to the EEC?

transformed the EEC into the European Union (EU)

12

Summarize the Economic Integration in Western Europe

ECSC --> EEC --> EU

13

The Fifth French Republic established in 1958 under

Charles De Gaulle

14

De Gaulle's key foreign policy decisions:(4)

- Grant Algeria full independence
- Withdrew from NATO
- Developed France's own nuclear weapons
- Opposed GB's entry into EEC

15

Who was leader after Stalin died

Khrushchev

16

What was Khrushchev's secret speech

Khrushchev boldly attacked Stalin in the speech, and denounced Stalin's reign of terror and rejected his "cult of personality"

17

What is Khrushchev's famous program of granting more freedom called?

de-Stalinization

18

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's novel "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich"

novel describing horrors of life in Stalinist concentration camp

19

Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Zhivago"

challenged principles of communism

20

Sputnik?
significance?

Soviet Union successfully launched the satellite into orbit
- symbol of Soviet technological prowess, beginnings of space race

21

Why did Khrushchev help East Germans to build the Berlin Wall?
what is the significance of the Berlin Wall?

- to stop the flow of refugees
- symbol of Communist oppression

22

De-Stalinization raised hopes for more freedom in Eastern Europe, and a wave of strikes and protests swept across the Soviet sphere of influence. How did Khrushchev react and were these protests successful?

- Khrushchev responded by ordering the Red Army to crush the rebellions

23

After Khrushchev, Soviet Union under Brezhnev experienced economic __________.

Stagnation

24

When Czechoslovakian leader initiated a program of democratic reforms, Brezhnev invaded and removed him from power. This invasion was justified by claiming that Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in the domestic affairs of other Communist countries. This declaration became known as the

Brezhnev Doctrine

25

What is the Détente?

President Nixon's policy to reduce tensions w/ Sov Union.
the two superpowers agreed to limit nuclear arms and expand trade

26

New leader of Soviet Union who is associated with reforms that collapsed Communism

Mikhail Gorbachev

27

Gorbachev's reforms in 3 stages:

Glasnost (openness) -> Perestroika (economic restructuring) -> Demokratizatsiya (democratization)

28

Gorbachev's Demokratizatsiya called for the election of a new legislature:

Congress of People's Deputies

29

Poland peacefully turned the Communist regime out of power with the democratic trade union called _______

Solidarity

30

How did the Soviet Union Collapse?

Communist hard-liners attempted to preserve the SU by overthrowing Gorbachev with a military coup, but it was thwarted by the Russian people who were willing to defend their freedom. Thus, when it was apparent that SU had finally collapsed and Russian Republic come to power, Gorbachev resigned.

31

Who led as the president of the Russian Republic which overthrew Sov Union?

Boris Yeltsin

32

key demographic trends after WWII
1. Birthrates
2. Result of decolonization?

1. at first rates rose in 1950s then declined
2. Former colonial peoples migrated to Europe