1a -Atlas A - General Orientation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1a -Atlas A - General Orientation Deck (88):
1

anatomical position

person stands erect, feet flat on floor and close together, arms at sides, palms and face directed forward

2

pronated

palm faces posteriorly

2

supinated

palm faces anteriorly

3

Section

implies actual cut or slice to reveal internal anatomy

4

Plane

Implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body

5

sagittal plane

passes vertically through the body
divides body into right and left regions

6

median (mid-sagittal plane) plane

sagittal plane that divides the body in equal parts

7

frontal (coronal) plane

divides body into anterior (front) & posterior (back) portions

8

transverse (horizontal) plane

divides the body into superior (upper) & inferior (lower) portions

9

directional terms

describe the location of one structure relative to another

10

ventral

toward the front or belly

11

dorsal

toward the back or spine

12

anterior

toward the ventral side

13

posterior

toward the dorsal side

14

cephalic

toward the head or superior end

15

rostral

toward the forehead or nose

16

caudal

toward the tail or inferior end

17

superior

above

18

inferior

below

19

medial

toward the median plane

20

lateral

away from the median plane

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proximal

closer toward the point of attachment or origin

22

distal

farther from the point of attachment or origin

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ipsilateral

on the same side of the body

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contralateral

on the opposite side of the body

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superficial

closer to the body surface

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deep

farther from the body surface

27

dorsum

used to denote the upper surface of the foot and back of the hand

28

major body regions

axial
appendicular

29

axial

head, neck, & trunk
–thoracic region
–abdominal region

30

trunk divisions

thoracic region above the diaphragm and abdominal region below the diaphragm

31

abdominal quadrants

right upper
right lower
left upper
left lower

32

3 lateral regions of the abdomen (right and left)

superior to inferior

hypochondriac
lumbar
inguinal (iliac)

33

3 median regions of the abdomen

superior to inferior

epigastric
umbilical
hypogastric (pubic)

34

appendicular region

upper and lower limbs

35

upper limb

arm (brachial region)
forearm (antebrachial region)
wrist (carpal region)
hand (manual)
fingers (digits)

36

lower limb

thigh (femoral region)
leg (crural region)
ankle (tarsal region)
foot (pedal region)
toes (digits)

37

segment

of a limb is the region between one joint and the next

38

Major body cavities

–cranial cavity
–vertebral canal
•meninges
–thoracic cavity
–abdominopelvic cavity
•abdominal cavity
•pelvic cavity

39

Major body cavities
lined with
filled with

Lined by serous membranes
Filled with viscera

40

cranial cavity

brain lined with meninges

41

vertebral canal

spinal cord lined with meninges

42

thoracic cavity

divided by the diaphragm into the superior thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity
both lined with thin serous membranes

43

mediastinum

region between lungs
–heart, major blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, & thymus

44

pericardium

around heart
–visceral pericardium
–parietal pericardium
–pericardial cavity
–pericardial fluid

45

pleurae

around lungs
–visceral pleura
–parietal pleura
–Pleural cavity
–Pleural fluid

46

abdominopelvic cavity

has abdominal (superior) and pelvic (inferior)cavities lined with peritoneum
Pelvic brim separates abdominal & pelvic cavities

47

abdominal cavity contains

most of the digestive organs
spleen
kidneys
ureters

48

retroperitoneal position

lie against the posterior body wall outside abdominal peritoneum
kidneys
ureters
adrenal glands
most of pancreas
aorta and inferior vena cava

49

pelvic cavity contains

rectum
urinary bladder
urethera
reproductive organs

50

peritoneum

two layered serous membrane
outer layer- parietal peritoneum
inner layer - visceral peritoneum
space between - peritoneal cavity with peritoneal fluid

51

intraperitoneal

organs encircled by peritoneum and connected to the posterior body wall by peritoneal sheets

52

dorsal mesentery

suspends intestines from posterior abdominal wall
Mesocolon

53

mesocolon

dorsal mesentery of large intestine

54

ventral mesentery

suspends viscera from anterior abdominal wall
greater omentum
lesser omentum

55

greater omentum

inferolateral border of stomach –overlies intestines -‘fatty apron’

56

lesser omentum

superomedial border of stomach to liver

57

serosa

outer layer of an organ formed when the visceral peritoneum divides and wraps around the organ

58

potential spaces

Found between two membranes normally pressed firmly together
examples: pleural cavity & uterus

59

organ systems

classes

11 organ systems divided into 5 classes
protection, support and movement
internal communication and integration
fluid transport
input and output
reproduction

60

protection, support and movement

integumentary system
skeletal system
muscular system

61

internal communication and integration

nervous system
endocrine system

62

fluid transport

circulatory system
lymphatic system

63

input and output

respiratory system
urinary system
digestive system

64

reproduction

male reproductive system
female reproductive system

65

integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands
protection, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication

66

skeletal system

bones, cartilages, ligaments
support, movement, protection of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid-base balance

67

muscular system

skeletal muscles
movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production

68

nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation

69

endocrine system

pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries
hormone production, internal chemical communication and coordination

70

circulatory system

heart, blood vessels
distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance

71

lymphatic system

lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease

72

respiratory system

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid base balance, speech

73

urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
elimination of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, stimulation of red blood cell formation, control of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance, detoxification

74

digestive system

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
nutrient breakdown and absorption, liver functions include metabolism, synthesis of plasma proteins, disposal of drugs, toxins and hormones, cleansing of the blood

75

male reproductive system

testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis
production and delivery of sperm, secretion of sex hormones

76

female reproductive system

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal nourishment, birth, lactation, secretion of sex hormones

77

Immune system

population of cells that inhabit multiple organs

78

ante-

before

79

cervico-

neck

80

epi-

above

81

hypo-

below

82

inguino-

groin

83

intra-

within

84

parieto-

wall

85

peri-

around

86

retro-

behind

87

sagitto-

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