1a-chapter 3 Cellular Form and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1a-chapter 3 Cellular Form and Function Deck (118):
1

cytology

the scientific study of cells

1

spontaneous generation

Louis Pasteur disproved theory

2

modern cell theory

all organism composed of cells and cell products
cell is simplest structural, functional unit of life
structure and function due to cell activity
cells come only from preexisting cells, not matter
cells of all species have commonalities due to common ancestry

3

resolution

reveals finer details

4

squamous cells

thin, flat scaly shaped

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cuboidal

squarish looking, equal height and width

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columar

taller than wider

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polygonal

irregular angular shapes with 4, 5, or more sides

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stellate

multiple pointed projections

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spheroidal to ovoid

round to oval

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discoid

disc-shaped

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fusiform

spindle-shaped

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fibrous

long, slender, thread like

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Major Constituents of Cell

plasma membrane
cytoplasm
extracellular fluid

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cytoplasm

fluid between the nucleus and the surface membrane

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extracellular fluid

ECF or interstitial fluid
all body fluids not contained in the cells

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intracellular fluid

ICF or cytosol
clear gel inside cell

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plasma membrane

unit membrane at the cell surface
defines boundaries of the cell
governs interactions with other cells
controls passage of materials into and out of the cell

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Membrane Lipids

98% of molecules in plasma membrane are lipids
Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Glycolipids

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plasma membrane layers

extracellular face
phospholipid bilayer
intracellular face

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Membrane Proteins

–2% of the molecules in plasma membrane
–50% of its weight

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Membrane Enzymes

•enzymes in plasma membrane carry out final stages of starch and protein digestion in small intestine
•help produce second messengers (cAMP)

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membrane proteins

integral
peripheral

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integral membrane proteins

penetrate into or all the way through the phospholipid bilayer

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peripheral membrane proteins

do not protrude into the phospholipid bilayer but adhere to one face of the membrane

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transmembrane proteins

integral membrane proteins that pass all the way through the phospholipid bilayer

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Ion Channels

Transmembrane proteins with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through membrane
–some constantly open
–some are gated-channels

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functions of membrane proteins

receptors
second-messenger systems
enzymes
channel proteins
carriers
cell-identity markers
cell-adhesion molecules

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gates

channels through the plasma membrane that open and close under different circumstances

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ligand-gated channels

respond to chemical messengers

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voltage-gated channels

respond to electrical potential

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mechanically gated channels

physical stress on a cell, stretch or pressure

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second messengers

messenger binds to the surface receptor
triggers changes within the cell
produces a second messenger into the cytoplasm

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glycocalyx

fuzzy coat external to all plasma membranes
chemically unique
enables the body to distinguish its own healthy cells from others

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surface extensions

microvilli
cilia
flagella

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microvilli

extensions that serve to primarily increase the surface area
specialize in absorption

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cilia

hairlike processes
sensors?

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Motile cilia

respiratory tract, uterine tubes, ventricles of the brain, efferent ductules of testes

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Cilia

Axoneme

core of cilia that is the structural basis for ciliary movement
has 9 + 2 structure of microtubules

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flagella

only one in human body
tail of a sperm

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Membrane Transport

•passive transport mechanisms requires no ATP
•active transport mechanisms consumes ATP
•carrier-mediated mechanisms use a membrane protein to transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other

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selectively permeable

the plasma membrane
allows some thing through, but not others

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simple diffusion

net movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration as a result of constant, spontaneous movement

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filtration

process in which particles are driven througha selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure (force exertedon a membrane by water)

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concentration gradient

when the concentration of a substance differs from one point to another

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factors affecting rate of diffusion

temperature
molecular weight
steepness of gradient
membrane surface area
membrane permeability

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osmosis

the net flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other

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Osmotic Pressure

amount of hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis

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Aquaporins

channel proteins specialized for passage of water

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reverse osmosis

process in which mechanical pressure applied to one side of the system can override osmotic pressure and drive water through a membrane against a concentration gradient

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osmole

1 mole of dissolved particles

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osmolality

number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water

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osmolarity

number of osmoles per liter of solution

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capillary filtration

Heart drives water out of capillaries by reverse osmosis

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toncicity

ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure of a cell

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hypotonic solution

a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the ICF
causes cells to gain water - swell/burst

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hypertonic solution

a higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the ICF
causes cells to lose water - shrivel

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isotonic

the total concentration of nonpermeating solutes is the same as the ICF
causes no change

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carrier mediated transport

employs transport proteins or carriers
requires a cell membrane

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Transport Maximum

transport rate when all carriers are occupied

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carrier types

3

uniports
symports
antiports

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uniports

caries only one type of solute

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symports

move two or more solutes through a membrane simultaneously

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antiports

move two or more solutes through a membrane simultaneously in different directions

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cotransport

uses symports
move two or more solutes through a membrane simultaneously

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countertransport

uses antiports
move two or more solutes through a membrane simultaneously in different directions

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mechanisms for carrier-mediated transport

facilitated diffusion
primary active transport
secondary active transport

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facilitated diffusion

carrier mediated transport of a solution down its concentration gradient
does not require energy expenditure

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primary active transport

carrier mediated transport of a solution up its concentration gradient
uses ATP as energy source

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secondary active transport

Uses ATP indirectly
sodium-potassium pump primary example

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sodium-potassium pump functions

secondary active transport
regulation of cell volume
maintenance of a membrane potential
heat production
EXCHANGES 3 Na+ FOR 2 K+

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vesicular transport

moves large particles, droplets of fluid or numerous molecules at one time through the membrane

72

endocytosis

brings matter into cell

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exocytosis

release material from the cell

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forms of endocytosis

phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

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phagocytosis

cell eating
engulfing particles in a vesicle called a phagosome

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phagosome

vesicle used in phagocytosis

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pinocytosis

cell drinking
process of taking droplets of liquid into the cell

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receptor-mediated endocytosis

more selective form of phagocytosis or pinocytosis
allows cell to take in specific molecules from the ECF

79

transcytosis

capture on one side and release on the other side of the cell

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exocytosis

discharging material from the cell
vesicle fusing with cell wall and discharging contents into ECF

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Organelles

internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks

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membranous organelles

those surrounded by one or two layers of unit membrane
•nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex

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organelles not surrounded by membranes

ribosome, centrosome, centriole, basal bodies

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cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments and cylinders that structurally support a cell, determine its shape, organize its contents , direct movement of materials within the cell and contribute to the movement of the cell as a whole

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cytoskeleton is composed of

3

microfilaments
intermediate filaments
microtubules

86

microfilaments

made of actin
form fibrous mat called the terminal web (membrane skeleton) on the inside of the plasma membrane

87

intermediate filaments

thicker and stiffer than microfilaments
give cell shape, resist stress, and help attach to neighbors

88

microtubules

cylinders made of 13 parallel strands called protofilaments
microtubules radiate from centrosome and hold organelles in place, form bundles that maintain cell shape and rigidity, and act somewhat like railroad tracks

89

nucleus

largest organelle and usually only one visible with the light microscope
contains cell chromosomes and is the genetic control center of activity

90

nuclear envelope

two unit membranes surround nucleus
–perforated by nuclear pores

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chromatin

(thread-like matter) composed of DNA and protein

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nucleoli

one or more dark masses where ribosomes are produced

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neoplasm

material in the nucleus

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endoplasmic reticulum

system of interconnected channels called cisternae
can be rough or smooth

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smooth endoplasmic reticulum

branching network of tubules with smooth surface
lipid synthesis, detoxification, calcium storage

96

rough endoplasmic reticulum

parallel unit membranes
protein synthesis and manufacture of cellular membranes

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ribosomes

small granules of protein and RNA
interpret genetic code and synthesize polypeptides

98

Golgi complex

small system of cisternae that synthesize carbohydrates and finishes protein and glycoprotein synthesis

99

Lysosome

package of enzymes bounded by a single unit membrane
produced by the Golgi complex

100

Lysosomes

functions

intracellular hydrolytic digestion of proteins, nucleic acids, complex carbohydrates, phospholipids, and other substances
–autophagy
–autolysis

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autophagy–

digest and dispose of worn out mitochondria and other organelles

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–autolysis

cell suicide‟ –some cells are meant to do a certain job and then destroy themselves

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peroxisomes

contain different enzymes than lysosomes and are produced by endoplasmic reticulum
oxidize organic molecules

104

centrioles

short, cylindrical assembly of microtubes arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each
play a role in cell division

105

centrosome

two centrioles lie perpendicular to each other within a small clear area of cytoplasm

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mitochondria

organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP
surrounded by a double unit membrane

107

inclusions

accumulated cell products or foreign bodies
never enclosed in a unit membrane

108

anti-

opposite

109

chromate-

color

110

co-

together

111

cyto-

cell

112

endo-

into

113

facil-

easy

114

fusi-

spindle

115

-olgy

study of

116

-osis

process

117

phago-

eat