1a1-chapter 8 skeletal system 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1a1-chapter 8 skeletal system 2 Deck (147)
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1

Vertebral Column

functions

–supports the skull and trunk
–allows for their movement
–protects the spinal cord
–absorbs stress of walking, running, and lifting
–provides attachments for limbs thoracic cage, and postural muscles

2

Vertebral Column

33 vertebrae with intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage between most of them

3

five vertebral groups

–7 cervical in the neck
–12 thoracic in the chest
–5 lumbar in lower back
–5 fused sacral at base of spine
–4 fused coccygeal

4

Newborn Spinal Curvature

•spine exhibits one continuous C-shaped curve at birth
•known as primary curvature

5

Adult Spinal Curvatures
four normal curvatures

four normal curvatures
–cervical
–thoracic
–lumbar
–pelvic

6

primary curvatures

–present at birth
–thoracic and pelvic

7

secondary curvatures

–develop later
–cervical and lumbar
–lifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature
–walking upright develops lumbar curvature

8

Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

from disease, paralysis of trunk muscles, poor posture, pregnancy, or congenital defect

9

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature
–most common
–usually in thoracic region
–particularly of adolescent girls
–developmental abnormality in which the body and arch fail to develop on one side of the vertebrae

10

kyphosis

kyphosis(hunchback) –exaggerated thoracic curvature
–usually from osteoporosis, also osteomalacia or spinal tuberculosis, or wrestling or weightlifting in young boys

11

lordosis

lordosis(swayback) –exaggerated lumbar curvature
–is from pregnancy or obesity

12

body

body(centrum)
–mass of spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
–covered with thin shell of compact bone
–weight bearing portion
–rough superior and inferior surfaces provide firm attachment for intervertebral discs

13

vertebral foramina

collectively form vertebral canal for spinal cord

14

vertebral arch

–composed of two parts on each side
–pedicle–pillarlike and lamina-platelike

15

spinous process

–projection extending from the apex of arch
–extends posteriorly and downward

16

transverse process

–extends laterally from point where pedicle and lamina meet

17

superior articular processes

project upward from one vertebra and meets inferior articular processes from the vertebra above

18

facets

–flat articular surfaces covered with hyaline cartilage

19

intervertebral foramen

–when two vertebrae are joined they exhibit and opening between their pedicles
–passageway for spinal nerves
–inferior vertebral notch in the pedicle of the upper vertebra
–superior vertebral notch in the pedicle of the lower vertebra

20

intervertebral discs

(23)
–first one between C2 and C3
–last one between L5 and sacrum
–bind vertebrae together
–support weight of the body
–absorb shock

21

intervertebral discs

consisting of:

pad consisting of:
•nucleus pulposus -inner gelatinous mass
•anulus fibrosus –outer ring of fibrocartilage

22

herniated disc

(‘ruptured’ or ‘slipped’ disc) puts painful pressure on spinal nerve or spinal cord

23

Cervical Vertebra C1

atlas (C1)
–supports the head
–has no body
–a delicate ring surrounding a large vertebral foramen
–lateral masses with superior articular facets
•articulates with occipital condyles
•allows nodding motion of skull gesturing ‘yes’
–inferior articular facets articulate with C2
–anterior and posterior arches
–anterior and posterior tubercles

24

lateral masses with superior articular facets

•articulates with occipital condyles
•allows nodding motion of skull gesturing ‘yes’

25

inferior articular facets

articulate with C2

26

Cervical Vertebra C2

axis (C2)
–allows rotation of the head gesturing ‘no’

27

dens

dens or odontoid process –prominent knob on its anterosuperior side
•forms as an independent ossification center during first year of life
•fuses with axis by age 3 to 6 years
•projects into vertebral foramen of the atlas
•held in place by a transverse ligament

28

atlanto-occipital joint

joint between atlas and cranium

29

atlantoaxial joint

joint between the atlas and axis

30

transverse ligament

holds dens in place