1a1-chapter 10 muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1a1-chapter 10 muscles Deck (158):
1

Muscles of Facial Expression

muscles that insert in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues
•tense the skin and produce facial expressions
•innervated by facial nerve (CN VII)

2

Frontalis

elevates eyebrows
galea aponeurotica
facial nerve (CN VII)

3

occipitalis

retracts scalp
galea aponeurotica
facial nerve (CN VII)

4

orbicularis oculi

closes eye
facial nerve

5

levator palpebrae superioris

elevates upper eyelid; opens eye
oculomotor nerve

6

orbicularis oris

encircles mouth
facial nerve

7

zygomatic Major

draws angle of mouth up
facial

8

zygomatic minor

minor over major
elevates upper lip
facial

9

buccinator

compresses cheek against teeth
facial

10

platysma

opens mouth, lip downward
chin to chest
facial

11

extrinsic muscle of tongue

genioglossus
hyoglossus
styloglossus
palatoglossus

12

genioglossus

protracts tongue
hypoglossal CN XII

13

hyoglossus

depress
hypoglossal CN XII

14

styloglossus

retracts tongue
hypoglossal CN XII

15

palatoglossus

extends
hypoglossal CN XII

16

Muscles of Chewing

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid

17

temporalis

elevation
O-temporal fossa
I-coronoid process of mandible
mandibular nerve V3

18

masseter

elevation
O- Zygomatic arch
I-ramus
mandibular nerve V3

19

medial pterygoid

elevation
O-medial surface of laterial pterygoid plate
I-ramus
mandibular nerve V3

20

lateral pterygoid

depression
O-lateral surface laterial pterygoid plate
I-neck of mandible
mandibular nerve V3

21

diagastric

depression

22

Infrahyoid Group

fix hyoid bone from below…allowing suprahyoid muscles to open mouth
•omohyoid –depresses hyoid after elevation
•sternohyoid–depresses hyoid after elevation
•thyrohyoid–depresses hyoid and elevates larynx
•sternothyroid–depresses larynx after elevation

23

omohyoid

depresses hyoid after elevation

24

sternohyoid

depresses hyoid after elevation

25

thyrohyoid

depresses hyoid and elevates larynx

26

sternothyroid

depresses larynx after elevation

27

Suprahyoid Group

aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing
•eight pairs of hyoid muscles associated with hyoid bone
•digastric -opens mouth widely
•geniohyoid–depresses mandible
•mylohyoid–elevates floor of mouth at beginning of swallowing
•stylohyoid –elevates hyoid

28

pharyngeal constrictors

3 pairs
during swallowing drive food into the esophagus

29

sternocleidomastoid

unilateral - contralateral rotation
bilateral - flexion
O-manubrium of sternum; medial 1/3 of clavical
accessory nerve CN XI

30

scalenes

unilateral - ipsilateral flexion
bilateral - flexion
O- transverse processes
I - ribs 1-2

31

trapezius

extends and flexes neck
most superficial
I-acronomion and spine of scapula; lateral 1/3 of clavicle
accessory nerve

32

splenius capitis

bilateral - extension
unilateral - ipsilateral flexion

33

semispinalis capitis

extend and contralaterally rotate head

34

carotid triangle

anterior

35

Muscles of Respiration

diaphragm, external intercostal, internal intercostal, and innermost intercostal muscles

36

diaphragm

prime mover of inspiration
O-costal margin
I-central tendon
phrenic nerve

37

external intercostal

inspiration
intercostal nerves

38

internal intercostal

expiration
intercostal nerves

39

innermost intercostal muscles

expiration
intercostal nerves

40

other muscles of chest and abdomen that contribute to breathing

–sternocleidomastoid, scalenes of neck
–pectoralis major and serratus anterior of chest
–abdominal muscles –internal and external obliques, and transverse abdominis

41

Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall

–external abdominal oblique
–internal abdominal oblique
–transverse abdominal
–rectus abdominis

42

external abdominal oblique

superficial
supports abdominal viscera against pull of gravity
compresses abdominal organs

43

internal abdominal oblique

middle
supports abdominal viscera against pull of gravity
compresses abdominal organs

44

transverse abdominal

deep
supports abdominal viscera against pull of gravity
compresses abdominal organs

45

rectus abdominis

flexes lumbar region of vertebral column
O-pubic symphysis
I-xipoid process

46

erector spinae

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
extension and lateral flexion of vertebral column

47

semispinalis thoracis

extension and contralateral rotation of vertebral column

48

quadratus lumborum

unilateral-ipsilateral flexion of lumbar vertebral column
bilateral-extends lumbar vertebral column
0-illiac crest
I- rib 12, vertebrae

49

multifidus

stabilizes adjacent vertebrae

50

Muscles of the Pelvic Floor

three layers or compartments of the perineum
superficial perineal space
middle compartment
pelvic diaphragm–

51

perineum

diamond-shaped region between the thighs

52

perineum–bordered by four bony landmarks

•pubic symphysis anteriorly
•coccyx posteriorly
•ischial tuberosities laterally

53

superficial perineal space

ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus,

54

ischiocavernosus

maintain erection of penis
pudendal nerve

55

bulbospongiosus

expels residual urine from urethra
pudental nerve

56

middle compartment

spanned by urogenital diaphragm
external urethral and anal sphincters

57

external urethral sphincters

retain urine in bladder
pudental nerve

58

external anal sphincters

retain feces in rectum
pudental nerve

59

pelvic diaphragm–

deepest layer consists of two muscle pairs
•levator ani and coccygeus

60

levator ani

compress anal canal
pudental nerve, spinal nerves S2-S3

61

coccygeus

aid levator ani
pudental nerve, spinal nerves S2-S3

62

Muscles Acting on the Shoulder

originate on the axial skeleton
•insert on clavicle and scapula
•scapula loosely attached to thoracic cage
–capable of great movement
–rotation, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction
•clavicle braces the shoulder and moderates movements

63

Anterior Group of Muscles of Pectoral Girdle

pectoralis minor
serratus anterior

64

pectoralis minor

–ribs 3-5 to coracoid process of scapula
–draws scapula laterally
protract and abduct scapula
medial and lateral pectorial nerves

65

serratus anterior

ribs 1-9 to medial border of scapula
–abducts and rotates or depresses scapula
protract and abduct scapula
long thoracic nerve

66

Posterior Group of Muscles of Pectoral Girdle

four muscles of posterior group
–trapezius-superficial
–levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major -deep

67

trapezius

–stabilizes scapula and shoulder
–elevates and depresses shoulder apex
accessory nerve

68

levator scapulae

vertebrea fixed–elevates scapula
scapula fixed–flexes neck laterally

69

rhomboideus minor

retracts scapula and braces shoulder

70

rhomboideus major

retracts scapula and braces shoulder

71

Muscles Acting on Arm

nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert on humerus
•two are axial muscles because they originate on axial skeleton

72

2 axial muscles

pectoralis major –flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus
–latissimus dorsi –adducts and medially rotated humerus

73

pectoralis major

clavicle/sternum to humerus
flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus

74

latissimus dorsi

vertebrae to humerus
adducts and medially rotated humerus

thoradorsal nerve

75

seven scapular muscles

deltoid
teres major
coracobrachialis
plus Rotator Cuff Muscles

76

deltoid

originate on scapula to deltoid tuberosity on humerus
•rotates and abducts arm
•intramuscular injection site

77

teres major

originate on scapula to inferior angle of scapula
extension and medial rotation of humerus

78

coracobrachialis

originate on scapula medial aspect humerus
flexes and medially rotates arm
musculocutaneous nerve

79

Rotator Cuff Muscles

–supraspinatus
–infraspinatus
–teres minor
–subscapularis

80

tendon most easily damaged

supraspinatus tendon most easily damaged

81

supraspinatus

superior to humerus
abduction

82

infraspinatus

posterior to humerus
lateral rotation

83

teres minor

posterior to humerus
lateral rotation
axillary nerve

84

–subscapularis

anterior to humerus
medial rotation

85

principal elbow flexors –anterior compartment

brachialis and biceps brachii
–brachialis produces 50% more power than biceps brachii
–brachialisis prime mover of elbow flexion

86

brachialis

brachialisis prime mover of elbow flexion
direct to humerus to ulna

87

biceps brachii

long head- glenoid cavity
short head - coracoid process
both to radius
musculocutaneous nerve

88

principal elbow extensor –posterior compartment

triceps brachii
–prime mover of elbow extension

89

triceps brachii

exends elbow
glenoid cavity/humerus to the olecranon

90

muscles with bellies in the forearm (antebrachium)

brachioradialis–flexes elbow
–anconeus–extends elbow
–pronator quadratus –prime mover in forearm pronation
–pronator teres –assists pronator quadratus in pronation
–supinator–supinates the forearm

91

brachioradialis

know nerve

principal flexor
flexes elbow
radial nerve

92

anconeus

extends elbow
inserts in olecranon

93

pronator quadratus

prime mover in forearm pronation

94

pronator teres

assists pronator quadratus in pronation
ulna to radius

95

supinator

supinates the forearm
humerus to radis

96

Anterior (Flexor) Compartment –superficial layer

–flexor carpi radialis
–flexor carpi ulnaris
–flexor digitorum superficialis
–palmaris longus

97

flexor carpi radialis

flexes wrist anteriorly

98

flexor carpi ulnaris

flexes wrist anteriorly

99

flexor digitorum superficialis

Know insertion

flexes wrist, MP & IP joints

middle phalanges II-V

100

palmaris longus

anchors skin of palmer region
does not go through the carpal tunnel

101

Anterior (Flexor) Compartment –deep layer

–flexor digitorum profundus
–flexor pollicis longus

102

–flexor digitorum profundus

Know insertion

flexes wrist, MP & IP joints

distal phalanges II-V

103

–flexor pollicis longus

flexes thumb

104

Posterior (Extensor) Compartment –superficial layer

–extensor carpi radialis longus
–extensor carpi radialis brevis
–extensor digitorum
–extensor digiti minimi
–extensor carpi ulnaris

105

extensor carpi radialis longus

extends wrist

106

extensor carpi radialis brevis

extends wrist

107

extensor digitorum

Know insertion

extends wrist, MP & IP joints

dprsal surfaces of phalanges II-V

108

extensor digiti minimi

extends wrist and little finger

109

extensor carpi ulnaris

extends wrist

110

Posterior (Extensor) Compartment –deep layer

–abductor pollicis longus
–extensor pollicis brevis
–extensor pollicis longus
–extensor indicis

111

abductor pollicis longus

abducts thumb

112

extensor pollicis brevis

extends metacarpal I and thumb

113

extensor pollicis longus

extends thumb

114

extensor indicis

extends wrist and index finger

115

Intrinsic Hand Muscles

thenar group
Hypothenar group
Midpalmar group

116

thenar group

–adductor pollicis
–abductor pollicis brevis
–flexor pollicis brevis
–opponens pollicis

117

Hypothenar group

–abductor digiti minimi
–flexor digiti minimi brevis
–opponens digiti minimi

118

Midpalmar group

–dorsal interosseous muscles (4)
–palmar interosseous muscles (3)
–lumbricals(4 muscles)

119

Muscles Acting on the Hip and Lower Limb

largest muscles found in lower limb
•less for precision, more for strength needed to stand, maintain balance, walk, and run
•several cross and act on two or more joints

120

anterior muscles of the hip

iliacus
psoas major
they share a common tendon on the femur

121

iliacus

flexes thigh at hip
•iliacus portion arises from iliac crest and fossa
inserts into lesser trochanter

122

psoas major

flexes thigh at hip
•arises from lumbar vertebrae
inserts into lesser trochanter

123

lateral and posterior muscles of the hip

tensor fasciae latae
gluteus maximus
gluteus medius and minimus

124

tensor fasciae latae

extends knee, laterally rotates knee
lateral condyle of tibia via iliotibial band

125

gluteus maximus

forms mass of the buttock
•prime hip extensor

126

gluteus medius and minimus

abduct and medially rotate thigh
greater trochanter

127

lateral rotators -six muscles inferior to gluteus minimus

superior to inferior

–piriformis
–gemellus superior
obturator internus
–gemellus inferior
–obturator externus
–quadratus femoris

128

five muscles act as primary adductors of the thigh

–adductor brevis
–adductor longus
–adductor magnus
–gracilis
–pectineus

129

most medial

–gracilis

130

most superior

–pectineus

131

all five originate on the

pubis

132

anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh

contains large quadriceps femoris muscle
•prime mover of knee extension
•most powerful muscle in the body

133

four heads

rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius

all extend knee

134

rectus femoris

origionates at AIIS
inserts on tibia
extends knee, flexes hip

135

sartorius

longest muscle in the body
knee and hip flexion

136

posterior (flexor) compartment of the thigh

contains hamstring muscles

137

hamstring muscles
–from lateral to medial

biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosus

138

biceps femoris

flexes knee
ischial tuberosity to fibula

139

semitendinosus

flexes knee
ischial tuberosity to tibia

140

semimembranosus

flexes knee
ischial tuberosity to tibia

141

popliteus

unlocks knee

142

anterior (extensor) compartment of the leg

dorsiflex the ankle
–prevent toes from scuffing when walking

143

fibularis (peroneus) tertius

dorsiflexes and everts

144

extensor digitorum longus

extends toes
inserts middle and distal phalanges II-V

145

extensor hallucis longus

extends great toe

146

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexes and inverts

147

Posterior Compartment of Leg Superficial Group

three muscles of the superficial group
–gastrocnemius -plantar flexes foot, flexes knee
–soleus –plantar flexes foot
–plantaris-weak synergist of triceps surae

148

gastrocnemius

plantar flexes foot, flexes knee
femur to calcaneous

149

soleus

plantar flexes foot
fibula-tibia to calcaneus

150

plantaris

plantar flexes foot
weak synergist of triceps surae

151

triceps surae

collective name for gastrocnemius and soleus
–inserts on calcaneus by way of the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
–strongest tendon in the body

152

Posterior Compartment of Leg Deep Group

–flexor digitorum longus –flexes phalanges
–flexor hallucis longus –flexes great toe
–tibialis posterior –inverts foot
–popliteus –acts on knee

153

flexor digitorum longus

know insertion

flexes phalanges
inserts on distal phalanges II-V

154

flexor hallucis longus

flexes great toe

155

tibialis posterior

inverts foot

156

Lateral (Fibular) Compartment of the Leg

–fibularis longus
–fibularis brevis

157

fibularis longus

both plantar flex and evert the foot

158

fibularis brevis

both plantar flex and evert the foot