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Flashcards in 1a1-chapter 8 skeletal system 1 Deck (76):
1

two regions of the skeleton

axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton

2

axial skeleton

forms the central supporting axis of the body
•skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)

3

appendicular skeleton

includes the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle, and the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle

4

number of bones

206 in typical adult skeleton
270 bones at birth, decreases with fusion

5

condyle

rounded knob that articulates with another bone

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facet

smooth, flat slightly concave or convex articular surface

7

head

prominent expanded end of bone

8

crest

narrow ridge

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epicondyle

expanded region superior to a condyle

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line

slightly raised, elongated ridge

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process

any bony prominence

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protuberance

bony outgrowth or protruding part

13

spine

sharp, slender or narrow process

14

trochanter

two massive processes unique to femur

15

tubercle

small, rounded process

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tuberosity

rough elevated surface

17

alveolus

pit or socket (tooth)

18

fossa

shallow, broad or elongated basin

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fovea

small pit

20

sulcus

groove for a tendon, nerve or blood vessel

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canal

tubular passage or channel

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fissure

slit through bone

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foramen

hole through a bone, usually round

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meatus

opening into a canal

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sinus

air-filled space in bone

26

skull

the most complex part of the skeleton
•22 bones joined together by sutures (immovable joints)
•8 cranial bones surround cranial cavity which encloses the brain
14 facial bones support teeth, facial and jaw muscles

27

paranasal sinuses

–lined by mucous membrane and air-filled
–lighten the anterior portion of the skull
–act as chambers that add resonance to the voice

28

paranasal sinuses

4

frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary

29

cranium

(braincase) –protects the brain and associated sense organs
–swelling of the brain inside the rigid cranium may force tissue through foramen magnum resulting in death

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cranium consists of two parts

the calvaria (skullcap) and the cranial base

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baseis divided into three basins

that comprise the cranial floor
–anterior cranial fossa
–middle cranial fossa
–posterior cranial fossa

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Frontal Bone

forms forehead and part of the roof of the cranium
•coronal suture
•supraorbital margin forms roof of the orbit
•supraorbital foramen
•glabella–smooth area above root of the nose
•contains frontal sinus

33

glabella

smooth area above root of the nose

34

Parietal Bone

•form most of cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
•bordered by 4 sutures
–sagittal–between parietal bones
–coronal–at anterior margin
–lambdoid –at posterior margin
–squamous–at lateral border
•two temporal lines serve as attachment of the temporalis muscle

35

Temporal Bone

3 parts

•lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
–squamous part
tympanic part
mastoid part

36

squamous part

•encircled by squamous suture
•zygomatic process
•mandibular fossa

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tympanic part

•external auditory meatus
•styloid process

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mastoid part

•mastoid process
–mastoiditis from ear infection
•mastoid notch
•stylomastoid foramen
•mastoid foramen

39

Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone

part of cranial floor
•separates middle from posterior cranial fossa
•houses middle and inner ear cavities
•receptors for hearing and sense of balance
•internal auditory meatus-opening for CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve)
•carotid canal
•jugular foramen

40

Occipital Bone

•rear and base of skull
•foramen magnum holds spinal cord
•basilar part
•skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles
•hypoglossal canal transmits hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) supplying tongue muscles
•condylar canal
•external occipital protuberance for nuchal ligament
•superior and inferior nuchal lines mark neck muscles

41

Sphenoid Bone -1

•body
•greater wing
•lesser wing
•optic foramen
•anterior clinoid processes
•superior orbital fissure

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Sphenoid Bone -2

•foramen rotundum
•foramen ovale
•foramen lacerum
•posterior nasal apertures orchoanae
•medial pterygoid plate
•lateral pterygoid plate
•sphenoid sinus

43

Ethmoid Bone

•between the eyes
•contributes to medial wall of orbit
•lateral walls and roof of nasal cavity, and nasal septum

44

three major portions of this porous, delicate bone

perpendicular plate

45

perpendicular plate

perpendicular plate forms superior two-thirds of nasal septum

46

cribriform plate

cribriform plate –forms roof of nasal cavity
–crista galli –attachment point for meninges
–cribriform (olfactory) foramina

47

abyrinth

labyrinth –large mass on each side of perpendicular plate
–ethmoid cells in the make up ethmoid sinuses
–orbital plate

48

facial bones

(14)–those that have no direct contact with the brain or meninges
–support the teeth
–give shape and individuality to the face
–form part of the orbital and nasal cavities
–provide attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication

49

facial bones (14)–

2 maxillae
2 nasal bones
2 palatine bones
2 inferior nasal conchae
2 zygomatic bones
1 vomer
2 lacrimal bones
1 mandible

50

Maxillary Bones

largest facial bones
•forms upper jaw and meet each other at a median intermaxillary suture

51

alveolar processes

are bony points between teeth

52

alveolus

sockets that hold teeth

53

Maxillary Bones forms

•forms inferomedial wall of orbit
–infraorbital foramen
–inferior orbital fissure
•forms most of the hard palate
–palatine process
–palate–forms the roof of the mouth and floor of nasal cavity
–incisive foramen
–palate allows us to chew while breathing
–cleft palate and cleft lip

54

know sinus locations

figure 8.8

55

Palatine Bones

•L-shaped bone
•form the posterior portion of the hard palate
•part of lateral nasal cavity wall
•part of the orbital floor
•greater palatine foramina Supraorbital

56

Zygomatic Bones

•forms angles of the cheekbones and part of lateral orbital wall
•zygomaticofacial foramen

57

zygomatic arch is formed from

from temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone

58

Lacrimal Bones

•form part of medial wall of each orbit
•smallest bone of skull
•lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life
–tears collect in lacrimal sac and drain into nasal cavity

59

Nasal Bones

•forms bridge of nose
•supports cartilages that shape lower portion of the nose
•often fractured by blow to the nose

60

Inferior Nasal Conchae

•three conchae in the nasal cavity
–superior and middle are part of the ethmoid bone
•inferior nasal concha is a separate bone
•largest of the three

61

Vomer

•inferior half of the nasal septum
–superior half formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid
•supports cartilage that forms the anterior part of the nasal septum

62

Mandible

•strongest bone of the skull
•only bone of skull that moves noticeably
•supports lower teeth
•provides attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication

63

mental symphysis

median cartilaginous joint in fetus
–develops as two separate bones in fetus
–ossifies in early childhood

64

mental protuberance

–point of chin

65

body

supports teeth

66

ramus

ramus–articulates with cranium
•angle–where body and ramus meet

67

alveolar processes

between teeth

68

condylar process

condylar process bears the mandibular condyle –oval knob that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone forming the hinge temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

69

coronoid process

point of insertion of temporalis muscle

70

Bones Associated With Skull

auditory ossicles

71

auditory ossicles

–three in each middle-ear cavity
–malleus, incus, and stapes

72

hyoid bone

–slender u-shaped bone between the chin and larynx
–does not articulate with any other bone
–suspended from styloid process of skull by muscle and ligament
–bodyand greater and lesser horns (cornua)
–fractured hyoid bone is evidence of strangulation

73

Skull in Infancy and Childhood

topic

74

fontanels-

fontanels-spaces between unfused bones
–filled with fibrous membrane
–allow shifting of bones during birth and growth of brain

75

fontanels- 4

anterior, posterior, sphenoid (anterolateral), and mastoid (posterolateral)

76

metopic suture)

two frontal bones fuse by age 6