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Flashcards in 1a1- chapter 28 Female Deck (142):
1

Female Reproductive System

produce and deliver gametes, provide nutrition and safe harbor for fetal development, gives birth, and nourish the infant
–more cyclic, and female hormones secreted in a more complex sequence than the relatively steady secretion in the male

2

paramesonephric ducts

female reproductive tract develops from the paramesonephric ducts
because of the absence of testosterone and müllerian-inhibiting factor (MIF)

3

internal genitalia

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

4

external genitalia

clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora

5

primary sex organs

ovaries

6

secondary sex organs

other internal and external genitalia

7

ovaries

female gonads which produce egg cells (ova) and sex hormones
almond-shaped and nestled in the ovarian fossa

8

tunica albuginea

capsule like on testes

9

outer cortex

where germ cells develop

10

inner medulla

occupied by major arteries and veins

11

lacks ducts

instead each egg develops in its own fluid-filled follicle

12

ovulation

bursting of the follicle and releasing the egg

13

ovarian ligaments

–attached to uterus by ovarian ligament
–attached to pelvic wall by suspensory ligament
•contains ovarian artery, vein and nerves
–anchored to broad ligament bymesovarium

14

ovary receives blood from two arteries

–ovarian branch of the uterine artery
–ovarian artery

15

uterine tube

(oviduct) or (fallopian tube)
•canal about 10 cm long from ovary to uterus
•muscular tube lined with ciliated cells

16

infundibulum

flared, trumpet-shaped distal (ovarian) end

17

fimbriae

feathery projections on infundibulum

18

ampulla

middle and longest part

19

isthmus

narrower end toward uterus

20

mesosalpinx

the superior portion of the broad ligament that enfolds uterine tube

21

uterus

thick muscular chamber that opens into the roof of the vagina
harbors fetus, provides a source of nutrition, and expels the fetus at the end of its development

22

pear-shaped organ

•fundus –broad superior curvature
•body(corpus) –middle portion
•cervix–cylindrical inferior end

23

cervical canal connects the lumen to vagina

•internal os –superior opening of the canal into the body of the uterus
•external os –inferior opening of the canal into the vagina

24

cervical glands

secretes mucus that prevents the spread of microorganisms from the vagina to the uterus

25

best protection against cervical cancer is early detection by

PAP smear

26

perimetrium

external serosa layer

27

myometrium

middle muscular layer
–constitutes most of the uterine wall
–composed mainly of smooth muscle

28

endometrium

inner mucosa
–simple columnar epithelium, compound tubular glands, and a stroma populated with leukocytes, macrophages, and other cells

29

stratum functionalis

superficial half, shed each menstrual period

30

stratum basalis

deep layer, stays behind and regenerates a new stratum functionalis with each menstrual cycle

31

during pregnancy, the endometrium is the

site of attachment of the embryo and forms the maternal part of the placenta from which the fetus is nourished

32

Ligaments

uterus is supported by the muscular floor of the pelvic outlet and folds of peritoneum that form ligaments around the organ

33

4 Ligaments

broad ligament
cardinal (lateral cervical) ligaments
uterosacral ligaments
round ligaments

34

uterine artery

arises from each internal iliac artery
-lead to arcuate arteries

35

spiral arteries

penetrate through the myometrium into the endometrium

36

vagina

(birth canal)
allows for discharge of menstrual fluid, receipt of penis and semen, and birth of baby

37

transudation

transudation lubricates vagina –“vaginal sweating”

38

fornices

blind-ended spaces formed from the vagina extends slightly beyond the cervix

39

vaginal epithelium

childhood -simple cuboidal
–puberty -estrogens transform to stratified squamous

40

The External Genitalia

external genitalia are collectively called the vulvaor pudendum

41

mons pubis

mound of fat over pubic symphysis bearing most of the pubic hair

42

labia majora

pair of thick folds of skin and adipose tissue inferior to the mons

43

labia minora

medial to labia majora are thin hairless folds
space between forms vestibule which contains urethral and vaginal openings

44

clitoris

erectile, sensory organ with no urinary role

45

vestibular bulbs

erectile tissue deep to the labia majora

46

greater and lesser vestibular and paraurethral glands

open into vestibule for lubrication

47

breast

mound of tissue overlying the pectoralis major

48

mammary gland

develops within the breast during pregnancy

49

two principal regions of the breast

–body –conical to pendulous, with the nipple at its apex
–axillary tail –extension toward the armpit

50

areola

nipple surrounded by circular colored zone the areola
–sensory nerve fibers of areola trigger a milk ejection reflex when an infant nurses

51

areolar glands

intermediate between sweat glands and mammary glands

52

smooth muscle fibers

in dermis of areola that contract in response to cold, touch, and sexual arousal wrinkling the skin and erecting the nipple

53

nonlactating breast

consists mostly of adipose and collagenous tissue

54

Breast Cancer

breast cancer occurs in 1 out of 8 American women
•tumors begin with cells from mammary ducts

55

mammograms

(breast X-rays)

56

treatment of breast cancer

lumpectomy–removal of tumor only
–simple mastectomy –removal of the breast tissue only or breast tissue and some axillary lymph nodes
–radical mastectomy –removal of breast, underlying muscle, fascia, and lymph nodes
–surgery followed by radiation or chemotherapy
–breast reconstruction from skin, fat, and muscle from other parts of the body

57

Puberty

•puberty begins at age 8-10 for most girls in US
•triggered by rising levels of GnRH

58

FSH

stimulates developing ovarian follicles and they begin to secrete estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, and a small amount of androgen

59

estrogens

estrogens are feminizing hormones with widespread effects on the body

60

thelarche

onset of breast development is the earliest noticeable sign of puberty

61

pubarche-

appearance of pubic and axillary hair, sebaceous glands, and axillary glands

62

menarche

first menstrual period

63

anovulatory

no egg ovulated

64

Hormones of Puberty

estradiol

–stimulates vaginal metaplasia
–stimulates growth of ovaries and secondary sex organs
–stimulates growth hormone secretion
–responsible for feminine physique because it stimulates the deposition of fat
–makes a girl‟s skin thicker

65

Hormones of Puberty

progesterone

primarily acts on the uterus preparing it for possible pregnancy in the second half of the menstrual cycle

66

Hormones of Puberty

estrogens and progesterone

suppress FSH and LH secretion through negative feedback

67

Hormones of Puberty
inhibin

selectively suppresses FSH secretion

68

hormone secretion is

distinctly cyclic and the hormones aresecreted in sequence

69

climacteric

midlife change in hormone secretion
–accompanied by menopause–cessation of menstruation
-female born with about 2 million eggs, climacteric begins when there are about 1000 follicles left

70

menopause

cessation of menstruation

71

hormone replacement therapy

(HRT) –low doses of estrogen and progesterone to relieve some of these symptoms

72

reproductive cycle

sequence of events from fertilization to giving birth

73

sexual cycle

events that recur every month when pregnancy does not intervene
–consists of two interrelated cycles controlled by shifting patterns of hormone secretion

74

ovarian cycle

events in ovaries

75

menstrual cycle

parallel changes in uterus

76

Oogenesis

egg production
–produces haploid gametes by means of meiosis
–distinctly cyclic event that normally releases one egg each month

77

primary oocytes

early meiosis I

78

secondary oocyte

large daughter cell that is the product of meiosis I
proceeds as far as metaphase II
•arrests until after ovulation
•if not fertilized, it dies and never finishes meiosis
•if fertilized, it completes meiosis II and casts off a second polar body

79

first polar body

smaller one that sometimes undergoes meiosis II, but ultimately disintegrates

80

folliculogenesis

the development of the follicles around the egg than undergoes oogenesis

81

primordial follicles

consists of a primary oocyte in early meiosis
•surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicular cells
•concentrated in the cortex of the ovary

82

primary follicles

have larger oocytes and follicular cells that still form a single layer

83

secondary follicles

•still larger oocytes and follicular cells now stratified (granulosa cells)

84

zona pellucida

layer of glycoprotein gel secreted by granulosa cells around the oocyte

85

theca folliculi

connective tissue around the granulosa cells condenses to form a fibrous husk

86

tertiary follicles

granulosa cells begin secreting follicular fluid
•accumulate in little pools in the follicular wall -this defines the tertiary follicles
•as they enlarge, the pools merge forming a single fluid-filled cavity, the antrum

87

antral follicles

tertiary and mature follicles

88

preantral follicles

earlier stages of the follicles

89

cumulus oophorus

a mound of granulosa cells on one side of the antrum that covers the oocyte and secures it to the follicular wall

90

corona radiata

innermost layer of cells in the cumulus surrounding the zona pellucida and the oocyte

91

theca folliculi continues to differentiate forming two layers

–theca externa –outer fibrous capsule rich in blood vessels
–theca interna –inner cellular, hormone secreting layer producing androgens (androstenedione and testosterone), and granulosa cells converts them to estradiol

92

mature (graafian) follicles

normally only one follicle from each month‟s cohort becomes a mature follicle destined to ovulate
•remainder degenerate

93

The Sexual Cycle

sexual cycle averages 28 days, varies from 20 to 45 days
•hormones of the hypothalamusregulate the pituitary gland
•pituitaryhormones regulate the ovaries
•ovariessecrete hormones that regulate the uterus

94

basic hierarchy of hormonal control

hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, uterus

95

cycle begins with 2 week follicular phase

–menstruation occurs during first 3 to 5 days of cycle
–uterus replaces lost tissue by mitosis and cohort of follicles grow
–ovulation around day 14 –remainder of the follicle becomes corpus luteum

96

next 2 weeks the luteal phase

–corpus luteum stimulates endometrial secretion and thickening
–if pregnancy does not occur, endometrium breaks down in the last 2 days
–menstruation begins and the cycle starts over

97

The Ovarian Cycle

in three principal steps
–follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase

98

follicular phase

extends from the beginning of menstruation until ovulation
–day 1 to day 14 of an average cycle

99

preovulatory phase

from the end of menstruation until ovulation

100

selection window

of 5 days in which one of them is selected as the dominant follicle to mature and ultimately ovulate in the next cycle

101

ovulation

the rupture of the mature follicle and the release of its egg and attendant cells
–typically around day 14

102

ovulation takes only 2 or 3 minutes

•nipple-like stigmaappears on ovary surface over follicle
•seeps follicular fluid for 1 or 2 minutes
•follicle bursts and remaining fluid oozes out carrying the secondary oocyte and cumulus oophorus
•normally swept up by ciliary current and taken into the uterine tube

103

Luteal (Postovulatory) Phase

luteal (postovulatory) phase -days 15 to day 28, from just after ovulation to the onset of menstruation

104

corpus luteum

ovulated follicle has now become the corpus luteum

105

menstrual cycle

consists of a buildup of the endometrium during most of the sexual cycle, followed by its breakdown and vaginal discharge

106

divided into four phases:

proliferative phase, secretory phase, premenstrual phase, and menstrual phase

107

proliferative phase

layer of endometrial tissue (stratum functionalis) lost in the last menstruation is rebuilt

108

secretory phase

endometrium thickens still more in response to progesterone from corpus luteum

109

premenstrual phase

of endometrial degeneration
–last 2 days of the cycle

110

menstrual phase

discharge of menstrual fluid from the vagina (menses)

111

Female Sexual Response

excitement and plateau, orgasm, resolution

112

tenting effect

uterus stands nearly vertical, where normally it tilts forward over the bladder

113

vaginal transudate

serous fluid that seeps through the walls of the canal

114

orgasm

intense sensation spreading from the clitoris through the pelvis

115

resolution

women do not have refractory period
•may quickly experience additional orgasms

116

gestation

gestation(pregnancy)
–lasts an average of 266 days from conception to childbirth

117

birth predicted

280 days (40 weeks) from LMP

118

term

the duration of pregnancy

119

conceptus

all products of conception –the embryo or fetus, the placenta, and associated membranes

120

blastocyst

the developing individual is a hollow ball the first 2 weeks

121

embryo

from day 16 through 8 weeks

122

fetus

beginning of week 9 to birth
•attached by way of an umbilical cord to a disc-shaped placenta

123

neonate

newborn to 6 weeks

124

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

stimulates growth of corpus luteum

125

morning sickness

nausea especially arising from bed in the first few months of gestation

126

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

rises about 15% in second half of gestation

127

circulatory system

by full term, placentarequires 625 mL of blood per minute from the mother
–mother‟s blood volume rises about 30% during pregnancy

128

respiratory system

respiratory rate remains constant
•tidal volume and minute ventilation increases about 40%

129

glomerular filtration

rate increases 50% and urine output is slightly elevated

130

chloasma

•„mask of pregnancy‟

131

vertex position

in the seventh month of gestation, the fetus normally turns into the head-down

132

Braxton Hicks contractions

relatively weak contractions of the uterus over the course of gestation
–strengthen late in pregnancy -false labor

133

parturition

the process of giving birth
•marked by the onset of true labor contractions

134

positive feedback theory of labor

–labor induced by stretching of cervix
–triggers a reflex contraction of the uterine body
–pushes the fetus downward
–stretches the cervix even more
–self-amplifying cycle of stretch and contraction

135

ischemia of the myometrium

pain of labor

136

labor occurs in three stages:

–dilation
–expulsion
–placental stage

137

puerperium

first 6 weeks postpartum (after birth) are called the

138

involution

shrinkage of the uterus

139

lactation

the synthesis and ejection of milk from the mammary glands

140

milk ejection (letdown) is controlled by a

neuroendocrine reflex

141

meconium

green, bile-filled fecal material in newborn)

142

contraception

any procedure or device intended to prevent pregnancy