[2] Class 7: Glycolysis And Gluconeogenesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [2] Class 7: Glycolysis And Gluconeogenesis Deck (88)
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1

3 components to monosaccharide:

1. Carbon number
2. Functional group
3. Stereoisomer form

2

Only 5 carbon sugar to know:

D-ribose

3

3 carbon sugars to know:

Dihydroxyacetone

D-glyceraldehyde

4

6 carbon ketose sugar?

D-fructose

5

Major component of DNA

Deoxyaldose

6

Theyre components of glycoproteins and glycolipids: cell signaling and adhesion

Acetylated amino sugars

7

Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Present in cell membrane and ECM

Acidic sugars

8

Constituted the gangliosides in oligodendrocyte of the NS

Sugar esters

9

Food additives, gains importance in uncontrolled diabetes leading to cataracts and peripheral neuropathy, used in synthesis of lipids

Sorbitol, mannitol

Sugar alcohols

10

Ex of sugar alcohols:

Sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol

11

Sugar alcohols that can be converted to fructose and metabolized normally, their slow metabolism is what helps reduce calories and weight gain.

Sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol

12

Non-sugar based artificial sweeteners trick the receptors on tongue and aren't metabolized like sugar. How does this effect endocrine?

Disrupts insulin signaling

13

Giving a phosphate generally...

Activates

14

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides glycosidic linkage

15

Starch amylose

Polysaccharide of glu residues w/ alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds

16

Amylopectin

Amylose w/ addition of alpha-1,6 glycosidic branch points

17

A major plant polysaccharide

Unbranded polymer of glucose residues joined by beta-1,4 linkages, allowing to form very long and straight chains

Dietary fiber

Cellulose

18

Metabolizes one molecule of glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvate w/ 2 net ATP

Glycolysis

19

Glycolysis and oxygen

Anaerobic

20

Glucose is the only fuel that: 2 things...

The brain uses under nonstarvation conditions and the only fuel that red blood cells can use at all.

21

How can pyruvate and lactate be salvaged?

By being resynthesized to glucose in gluconeogenesis

22

Sources of glucose in diet:

Starch, glycogen, disaccharides (esp. sucrose and lactose)

23

Complete oxidation efficiency > ...

Anaerobic glycolysis

24

The only insulin dependent glucose uptake GLUT4

In skeletal, muscle, heart, adipose

25

Why would GLUT 2 [main transporter for liver] have a low affinity for glucose uptake:

The liver doesnt want to store glu. It wants to maintain it throughout body.

26

Ubiquitous but high in RBC's and brain

High affinity for glucose

GLUT1

27

The main glucose transporter in neurons

GLUT3

28

How many stages to glycolysis?

3;

1st is 6 carbons-investment

2nd: is converting into 3 carbons and conversion of DHAP to G3P

3rd: converting to pyruvate- gaining ATP

29

Traps glucose in the cell

Hexokinase

30

Which stage in glycolysis, the conversion of glucose to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

Stage 1