Lecture 1&2: Kincaid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1&2: Kincaid Deck (37)
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1

Covalent bonds

Sharing of a pair of electrons

2

Electrostatic. Interactions

A charged group can attract an oppositely charged group

3

Hydrogen bonds

Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one EN atom is also attracted to another

4

Van dear walls interactions

Results from the asymmetrical distribution of electrons in molecules or atoms

5

Common COVALENT c-c bond distance and energy:

1.54 angstroms; 355 kJ mol-1 (85kcal)

6

Common electrostatic interaction length

3 angstroms; 5.86 kJmol-1

7

Common hydrogen bond length

1.5 -2.6 angstrom; 4-20 kJ mol-1

8

How to combine sugar and amino acid moieties:

Dehydration rxn

9

Which carbon in DNA is "deoxy"

2' carbon

10

Nuceloside

Sugar+nitrogenous base(NO phosphate group)

11

Adenine and thymine have___ bonds; Guanine and cytosine have ____ bonds.

2; 3

12

Properties of water:

Polarity, cohesion, moderation of temperature, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solvent

13

Hydrophobic effect

Nonpolar to cluster together to exclude water in aq. Environment

14

Guanine: pKa =9.7 what's this mean?

Above this pH, you lose H's...DNA becomes single stranded

15

PH=pKa then:

Protonated = deprotonated

16

PKa =

The susceptibility of proton removal

17

PH is lower than pKa:

Hydrogen bonds remain intact

18

Buffers:

Regulate pH in organisms and in lab; weak acid and its conjugate base

19

Buffers are most effective at pH:

near their pKa

20

Dynamic equilibrium

Rate of the forward reaction = rate of reverse; [ ] of R / P don't have to be =

21

Catabolic pathways

Release energy by breaking bonds of complex molecules to simpler.

22

Anabolic pathway

Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones.

23

Kinetic energy

Asso. W/ motion

24

Thermal energy

Also. W/ random movements of atoms/molecules

25

Potential energy

Energy in matter that is present d/t location or structure

26

First law thermodynamics

Total energy of a system and environment is constant. "Can't be created or destroyed"

27

Second law thermodynamics

Entropy of system and environment always increases. Spreading

28

IF disorder increases, why does an organized DNA helix form?

The heat released by helix formation increases the entropy of the surrounding.

29

Free energy:

A living organisms energy that can do work

30

3 types work from cell:

Chemical, transport, mechanical