2. Political, Economic And Social Problems Of Russia In 1894 Flashcards Preview

RUSSIA: Chapter 1: The rule of Tsar Nicholas II > 2. Political, Economic And Social Problems Of Russia In 1894 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. Political, Economic And Social Problems Of Russia In 1894 Deck (107)
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1
Q

What was the size of Russia?

A

8 million square miles

2
Q

How many times larger was Russia compared to the USA

A

2.5 times

3
Q

What country was 2.5 times smaller than Russia?

A

USA

4
Q

What were principal cities?

A

St Petersburg and Moscow

5
Q

What was the importance of Moscow and St Petersburg?

A

Principal cities

6
Q

What was a problem with the agriculture in Russia

A

Limited

7
Q

What was a conservative faction in Russia?

A

The Orthodox Church

8
Q

What the motto of the church?

A

“God commands us to love and obey

9
Q

Who’s motto was “God commands us to Love and Obey”?

A

The church

10
Q

What was the population in 1815?

A

40 million

11
Q

What was the population in 1914?

A

165 million

12
Q

What happened to the population during 1815-1914?

A

Quadruple

13
Q

In what period did the population quadruple

A

1815-1914

14
Q

During what period did the population move from 40 million to 165 million?

A

1815-1914

15
Q

What percentage of the population was peasants?

A

80%

16
Q

What was 80% of the population?

A

Peasants

17
Q

In the 1897 census, what percentage of the population made up the ruling classes?

A

0.5%

18
Q

In the 1897 census who made up 0.5% of the population?

A

Ruling classes

19
Q

Why was their unrest before Nicholas reign?

A

Peasants had received land under Alexander II but were unhappy with the quality and quantity

20
Q

What were peasants controlled by

A

Mir (village councils) headed by village elders

21
Q

What was the role of the Mir?

A

Control peasants and act as village council

22
Q

What was starting at the beginning of Tsar Nicholas II reign?

A

Industrialisation

Industrial workforce growing

23
Q

What was Russia slow in compared with other European nations?

A

Economic growth

24
Q

What industries were Russia made up of?

A

Cottage

Small scale businesses

25
Q

What was underdeveloped in Russia?

A

Infrastructure

26
Q

What did the Emancipation Act of 1861 do?

A

Allowed peasants to buy land

27
Q

What happened in 1861?

A

Emancipation Act

28
Q

When was the Emanciption Act?

A

1861

29
Q

What was the problem with the emancipation act of 1861?

A

Too costly

30
Q

What was the main way of farming?

A

Strip system

31
Q

What was the distance of Russia from West to East?

A

5000 miles

32
Q

What was the distance of Russia from North to South

A

2000 miles

33
Q

Where did many people live within Russian?

A

European Russia and many moved towards main cities of St a Petersburg and Moscow

34
Q

What was Russia like culturally?

A

Wide social and ethnic mix
E.g. Ukrainians, Germans, Poles, Finns
With their own language and culture

35
Q

What was the problem with national minority groups?

A

Posed a threat as they wanted independence

36
Q

Where did Russia want to exert their authority?

A

Caucasus region

37
Q

Who did Russia fall out with?

A

Austria

38
Q

Who did Russia make alliances with?

A

France and Prussia

39
Q

What major wars was Russia involved in?

A

Crimean

Russo Turkish war

40
Q

What caused the government to be preoccupied?

A

Too much routine paperwork

41
Q

What was there a required development for?

A

Doctors, Lawyers, Educators, Engineers and administrators

42
Q

What was the annual economic growth rate in 1894?

A

8%

43
Q

In what year was the economic growth rate 8%?

A

1894

44
Q

What allows the 8% growth rate in 1894?

A

Small scale enterprise

45
Q

What was an old role of the tsar that Nicholas would have to focus on?

A

Far more interventionism, Managing economy, directing industry and providing more social services also through maintaining order through providing welfare

46
Q

What were the political groups thoughts after 1905?

A

Liberal and socialist opposition groups were calling for reforms to the political system to allow greater representation of the people

47
Q

What was the problem with the 8% growth rate?

A

Much is this achieved through small-scale enterprise rather than large-scale enterprise based on the principle of division of labour
Productivity was low compare to international rivals

48
Q

What did the Tsar and his ministers control?

A

Controlling armaments industry and the railway

49
Q

What’s caused the western economic modernisation?

A

Lassiez faire, Freemarket thinking

50
Q

What did Slavophile believe about modernisation?

A

Opposed the free market approach

51
Q

Who opposed the free market solution?

A

Slavophile

52
Q

What were the peasantry refer to as

A

Dark masses

53
Q

Why were the peasantry a threat To the running elite

A

Because of the sheer size of the social group

54
Q

What had happened that improve the living conditions of peasants

A

Peasant land bank was formed in 1883 and the abolition of peasant poll-tax in 1886

55
Q

What did the Mir lead to

A

Less incentive to farmland properly

56
Q

What cause an increase in unemployment and under employment

A

A rapidly growing population

57
Q

How many people died as a result of the 1891 famine

A

350,000 people

58
Q

In what famine did 350,000 people die

A

1891

59
Q

What was the size of the industrial workforce by 1912

A

2.9 million

The industrial workforce doubled

60
Q

What was the social issues in Russia?

A

Poor housing, lack of sanitation, in adequate water supplies

61
Q

What did the poor social conditions within Russia cause?

A

Spread of diseases especially cholera

62
Q

How was the welfare of the workers more considered

A

Resourcing establishment of factory Inspectorate, the Ministry of internal affairs started to make more aggressive stance towards any attempts to support the labouring classes

63
Q

What was the problem of Russia’s dependence on foreign investment?

A

Russian government was never in total control of the rate at which industrialisation could occur

64
Q

In which period did Russia experience terrible famines?

A

1891 to 1892

65
Q

What market was small within Russia

A

Small home market for goods

66
Q

What was the problem with not having a middle class?

A

Lack of a flourishing middle-class to provide sustained economic growth

67
Q

What lagged causing productivity to go down?

A

They were behind more developed economies

68
Q

What does the increase in industrial workers show?

A

The formation of a new class

69
Q

What is the little amongst the proletariat lead to?

A

Added to the list of peasants

70
Q

What was the growth mainly thanks to?

A

Witte

Vyshnegradsky

71
Q

When did Witte Take over

A

1892

72
Q

Who worked between 1892-1903

A

Sergei Witte

73
Q

What was Wittes aim?

A

Totally committed to economic modernisation seeing it as the only way of preserving Russia’s Great Power status

74
Q

What was the 3 problems Witte recognised?

A

Insufficient capital
Lack of technical/manegerial expertise
Insufficient man power in the right places

75
Q

Why did industrialisation happen from above?

A

No Entrepreneurial class to drive change

76
Q

What fraction of Worlds land mass did Russia have?

A

1/6

77
Q

Who owned 25% of land

A

1% of nobility

78
Q

What happened to the new working-class

A
New class developed a political awareness of consciousness
Found a voice for a socialist organisations to challenge the authority of the Tsar
79
Q

Since when did the Romanov family rule

A

1613

80
Q

Where was the government based?

A

St Petersburg

81
Q

What were the 3 main ruling bodies?

A

Imperial council
Cabinet of ministers
Senate

82
Q

Who selected the government?

A

Tsar

83
Q

Which stars had modernised the country

A

Tsar Peter I

Catherine II

84
Q

What was the main worry for Russia internationally?

A

Russia was falling behind modern Europe and becoming a second rate power

85
Q

What was opposition treated as

A

Treason

86
Q

How did the Tsar rule?

A

Imperial decree- ukase

87
Q

What was Ukaz

A

Imperial decree the tsar used to rule

88
Q

What was the social structure

A

Feudal

89
Q

What percentage of the population did the peasantry make up

A

80%

90
Q

In terms of military what was the Tsar

A

Chief of army and in charge of foreign policy

91
Q

How much of the government expenditure went to the army

A

45%

92
Q

What could the nobility purchase within the army?

A

Commissions

93
Q

When was there a famine

A

1891-2

94
Q

What happened between 1891-2?

A

Famine

95
Q

What was ineffective in dealing with them rural problems

A

Department of Agriculture, 1894

96
Q

What was the annual growth rate in 1894?

A

8%

97
Q

What enterprise did the government focus on?

A

Larger scale ( only old staples (iron, steel, mining and textiles))

98
Q

What aggravated peasants in 1886

A

Abolition of peasant poll tax

99
Q

When was the peasant poll tax abolished

A

1886

100
Q

What dominated the land available

A

The Mir

101
Q

What was the death rate of the 1891 famine?

A

350,000 people

102
Q

What resulted in the death of 350,000 people?

A

1891 famine

103
Q

What was the size of the industrial workforce by 1912

A

2.9 million

104
Q

In what year was the industrial workforce 2.9 million

A

1912

105
Q

What did the ministry of finance do

A

Progress to protect workers

106
Q

What did the ministry of internal affairs do?

A

Aggressive stance against workers

107
Q

What was the impact of the ministry of finance and internal affairs opposing opinions

A

Confusion and inconsistency amongst the government stance on labour relations