What was the size of Russia?
8 million square miles
How many times larger was Russia compared to the USA
What country was 2.5 times smaller than Russia?
What were principal cities?
St Petersburg and Moscow
What was the importance of Moscow and St Petersburg?
What was a problem with the agriculture in Russia
What was a conservative faction in Russia?
The Orthodox Church
What the motto of the church?
“God commands us to love and obey
Who’s motto was “God commands us to Love and Obey”?
What was the population in 1815?
What was the population in 1914?
What happened to the population during 1815-1914?
In what period did the population quadruple
During what period did the population move from 40 million to 165 million?
What percentage of the population was peasants?
What was 80% of the population?
In the 1897 census, what percentage of the population made up the ruling classes?
In the 1897 census who made up 0.5% of the population?
Why was their unrest before Nicholas reign?
Peasants had received land under Alexander II but were unhappy with the quality and quantity
What were peasants controlled by
Mir (village councils) headed by village elders
What was the role of the Mir?
Control peasants and act as village council
What was starting at the beginning of Tsar Nicholas II reign?
Industrial workforce growing
What was Russia slow in compared with other European nations?
What industries were Russia made up of?
Small scale businesses
What was underdeveloped in Russia?
What did the Emancipation Act of 1861 do?
Allowed peasants to buy land
What happened in 1861?
When was the Emanciption Act?
What was the problem with the emancipation act of 1861?
What was the main way of farming?
What was the distance of Russia from West to East?
What was the distance of Russia from North to South
Where did many people live within Russian?
European Russia and many moved towards main cities of St a Petersburg and Moscow
What was Russia like culturally?
Wide social and ethnic mix
E.g. Ukrainians, Germans, Poles, Finns
With their own language and culture
What was the problem with national minority groups?
Posed a threat as they wanted independence
Where did Russia want to exert their authority?
Who did Russia fall out with?
Who did Russia make alliances with?
France and Prussia
What major wars was Russia involved in?
Russo Turkish war
What caused the government to be preoccupied?
Too much routine paperwork
What was there a required development for?
Doctors, Lawyers, Educators, Engineers and administrators
What was the annual economic growth rate in 1894?
In what year was the economic growth rate 8%?
What allows the 8% growth rate in 1894?
Small scale enterprise
What was an old role of the tsar that Nicholas would have to focus on?
Far more interventionism, Managing economy, directing industry and providing more social services also through maintaining order through providing welfare
What were the political groups thoughts after 1905?
Liberal and socialist opposition groups were calling for reforms to the political system to allow greater representation of the people
What was the problem with the 8% growth rate?
Much is this achieved through small-scale enterprise rather than large-scale enterprise based on the principle of division of labour
Productivity was low compare to international rivals
What did the Tsar and his ministers control?
Controlling armaments industry and the railway
What’s caused the western economic modernisation?
Lassiez faire, Freemarket thinking
What did Slavophile believe about modernisation?
Opposed the free market approach
Who opposed the free market solution?
What were the peasantry refer to as
Why were the peasantry a threat To the running elite
Because of the sheer size of the social group
What had happened that improve the living conditions of peasants
Peasant land bank was formed in 1883 and the abolition of peasant poll-tax in 1886
What did the Mir lead to
Less incentive to farmland properly
What cause an increase in unemployment and under employment
A rapidly growing population
How many people died as a result of the 1891 famine
In what famine did 350,000 people die
What was the size of the industrial workforce by 1912
The industrial workforce doubled
What was the social issues in Russia?
Poor housing, lack of sanitation, in adequate water supplies
What did the poor social conditions within Russia cause?
Spread of diseases especially cholera
How was the welfare of the workers more considered
Resourcing establishment of factory Inspectorate, the Ministry of internal affairs started to make more aggressive stance towards any attempts to support the labouring classes
What was the problem of Russia’s dependence on foreign investment?
Russian government was never in total control of the rate at which industrialisation could occur
In which period did Russia experience terrible famines?
1891 to 1892
What market was small within Russia
Small home market for goods
What was the problem with not having a middle class?
Lack of a flourishing middle-class to provide sustained economic growth
What lagged causing productivity to go down?
They were behind more developed economies
What does the increase in industrial workers show?
The formation of a new class
What is the little amongst the proletariat lead to?
Added to the list of peasants
What was the growth mainly thanks to?
When did Witte Take over
Who worked between 1892-1903
What was Wittes aim?
Totally committed to economic modernisation seeing it as the only way of preserving Russia’s Great Power status
What was the 3 problems Witte recognised?
Lack of technical/manegerial expertise
Insufficient man power in the right places
Why did industrialisation happen from above?
No Entrepreneurial class to drive change
What fraction of Worlds land mass did Russia have?
Who owned 25% of land
1% of nobility
What happened to the new working-class
New class developed a political awareness of consciousness Found a voice for a socialist organisations to challenge the authority of the Tsar
Since when did the Romanov family rule
Where was the government based?
What were the 3 main ruling bodies?
Cabinet of ministers
Who selected the government?
Which stars had modernised the country
Tsar Peter I
What was the main worry for Russia internationally?
Russia was falling behind modern Europe and becoming a second rate power
What was opposition treated as
How did the Tsar rule?
Imperial decree- ukase
What was Ukaz
Imperial decree the tsar used to rule
What was the social structure
What percentage of the population did the peasantry make up
In terms of military what was the Tsar
Chief of army and in charge of foreign policy
How much of the government expenditure went to the army
What could the nobility purchase within the army?
When was there a famine
What happened between 1891-2?
What was ineffective in dealing with them rural problems
Department of Agriculture, 1894
What was the annual growth rate in 1894?
What enterprise did the government focus on?
Larger scale ( only old staples (iron, steel, mining and textiles))
What aggravated peasants in 1886
Abolition of peasant poll tax
When was the peasant poll tax abolished
What dominated the land available
What was the death rate of the 1891 famine?
What resulted in the death of 350,000 people?
What was the size of the industrial workforce by 1912
In what year was the industrial workforce 2.9 million
What did the ministry of finance do
Progress to protect workers
What did the ministry of internal affairs do?
Aggressive stance against workers
What was the impact of the ministry of finance and internal affairs opposing opinions
Confusion and inconsistency amongst the government stance on labour relations