Why did Russia modernise?
Be on the same level as other European powers
What did Russia’s want to be on the same level as other European powers mean?
What was Inside Russia’s reserves?
Oil, Iron, Coal, Timber
During what period was Witte the financial minister?
Who was the financial minister between 1892-1903
Who’s idea did Witte support?
When were foreign loans negotiated?
What did Witte want to do to interest rate and taxes?
Raise interest rates and taxes to boost available capital
When was the Russian currency placed on the Gold standard?
What did Witte do in January 1897?
Witte places Russian currency on the Good Standard
What happened to coal production
Doubled between 1890-1905
What materials production double between 1890s-1905
What happened to iron and steel?
Production was 7 times greater
What material was 7 times greater during 1890s-1905?
Iron and steel
During what period did coal production double?
What happened to the oil and chemistry industries?
New technology introduced
What happens to the oil and chemistry industry?
New technology introduced
What were the railway tracks length in the 1891?
When was the length of the railway tracks in 1891?
What was the length of the railway tracks in 1901?
During what period did the railway tracks increase from 29183 to 52612?
1891 to 1901
How much did capital investment increase by between 1893-98
In which sector did the investment increase by 120%
Capital every year between 1893-1898
During what period did capital increase by 120% every year
How many people were working class
11 million people in the population were …
What was the nickname of the government that had overseen work?
What was the Witte system?
nickname of the government that had overseen work
What financed the development in manufacturing
Loans from abroad
What was the percentage of increase in railways in 30 years
In how many years did the railway increase by 230%
What thing increased by 230% in 30 years?
What was the income from industry in 1893?
What was the income of industry in 1897?
When was the income from industry 42 million?
When was the income from industry 161 million
What was Russia position in iron producers
Over took France and was 4th
In what material was Russia the 4th biggest producer?
What did Russia do to prevent imports
Imposed high tariffs
How much was foreign investment in 1880?
98 million roubles
What was the foreign investment in 1900?
What percentage of the railway did the state own?
By what number did iron production increase?
9 million to 76 million
What was the population in Moscow
What was the population in St. Petersburg?
In what area was the population half a million?
In what area was the population, 2 million?
What railways was developed
How did Russia improve its balance of trade?
Russia exporting 186 million between 1901-10
What was the size of the population of St Petersburg in 1914?
What did Russia exploit better?
Exploited natural resources from Siberia
Production of grain in 1913 was
What was Russia dependent upon?
What areas were neglected?
Areas such as light engineering and no attention to agriculture
Between 1908-14, what was the inflation rate?
During what period was there a 40% inflation
How was Russia still behind in national income?
Austria Hungary expanded by 79%
Britain expanded by 70%
Russia expanded by 50%
When did industrial growth fall by?
Industrial growth fell by 1.4% between 1900-1906
What was the side of railway tracks in 1913?
How much of iron and steel was consumed by the railways in 1900s?
What city became the 10th largest city in the world?
What happened to Moscow in 1900?
Became the 10th largest city in the world
What were wittes aims?
Modernisation of Russia
Reduce social instability
Prepare for War
Stabilise Tsar power
When did industrial growth fall to 1.4%
What was the industrial growth in 1906
Why were growth figures not impressive
Accompanied with a population growth
Who was Witte disliked by
What did the royal courts dislike of Witte mean?
What was the impact of placing the currency on the gold standard?
Stability in currency so increased trade
What was the impact of the trans-Siberian railway?
Connects trading links
By 1914, what was the length of the Trans Siberian railway
What did Witte do to foreign taxes?
Increased to improve balance of payments
What percentage of the metallurgy was owned by the state by 1899?
What fraction of the railway was owned by the state in 1899?
What was the railway length in 1866?
When was the railway length 3,000km?
What was the railway length in 19133?
When was the railway length 43,000?