8. Stolypin Flashcards Preview

RUSSIA: Chapter 1: The rule of Tsar Nicholas II > 8. Stolypin > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8. Stolypin Deck (68)
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1
Q

When were there famines?

A

1891

1897

2
Q

What happened in 1891 and 1897?

A

Famines

3
Q

How did Stolypin ‘de-revolutionise the peasants’?

A

High price of mortgages meant there was fear that the government would repossess land so the government cleared this

4
Q

What measure happened between 1906-1907?

A

Wager on the strong

5
Q

When was the wager on the strong?

A

1906 to 1907

6
Q

What was wager on the strong?

A

Creation of a layer of prosperous, productive peasants. Their wealth would turn them into Tsarist supporters as they have new wealth.
Farmers urged to remove strip system with fence fields
Land bank established to allow an independent peasant to buy his own land

7
Q

Why did Stolypin have little success?

A

Conservatism prevented change

8
Q

How many years did Stolypin say he needed to make change?

A

20 years

9
Q

What did Stolypin put down in December 1905?

A

Moscow rebellion

10
Q

How many death sentences were there between field courts martial between 1906-07?

A

1144 death sentences

11
Q

Between what years did the field court martial carry out 1144 death sentences?

A

1906 to 1907

12
Q

Who carried out 1144 death sentences between 1906 to 1907?

A

Field court martial

13
Q

How many newspapers were closed between 1906-12?

A

1,000 newspapers

14
Q

Between what years were 1,000 newspapers closed?

A

1906-7

15
Q

By 1908, how many assassinations were there?

A

385

16
Q

In what year were the assassinations 385?

A

1908

17
Q

In what year were the assassinations 1200?

A

1907

18
Q

How many assassinations were there in 1907?

A

1,200

19
Q

What were the number of assassinations between 1907 to 1908?

A

1907: 1,200
1908: 385

20
Q

What could peasants do regarding Mirs?

A

Peasants could withdraw and set up their own

21
Q

What was the impact of the peasants Land Bank?

A

Gave loans to peasants leaving communes

22
Q

Who gave loans to peasants leaving communes?

A

Peasants land Bank

23
Q

What payments were abolished

A

Redemption payments

24
Q

What was dissolved?

A

Communes

25
Q

What was the ‘Bet on the sober and the strong’?

A

Creation of new prosperous class of peasants loyal to the Tsar

26
Q

By 1915, by what percentage did peasant land ownership increase by?

A

20% to 50%

27
Q

What was the agricultural production in 1906?

A

45 million tonnes

28
Q

In what year was food production 45 million tonnes?

A

1906

29
Q

What was the food production in 1913?

A

61 million tonnes

30
Q

In what year was the food production 61 million tonnes?

A

1913

31
Q

Between 1908, how many were convicted?

A

16,500

32
Q

Between what years were there 16,500 convicted?

A

1908-9

33
Q

How many were hanged between 1908-9?

A

3,600

34
Q

Between what years were 3,600 hanged?

A

1908-9

35
Q

Between what years were 4,500 sent to hard labour camps

A

1908-9

36
Q

How many were sent to hard labour camps between 1908-9?

A

4,500

37
Q

What was the Hangman’s noose nicknamed?

A

Stolypins necktie

38
Q

What interrupted progress?

A

WW1

39
Q

When was Stolypin assassinated?

A

September 1911

40
Q

What happened in September 1911?

A

Stolypin assassinated

41
Q

What sectors were ignored?

A

Industrial and urban areas ignored

42
Q

When was there a general strike in Moscow?

A

1914

43
Q

Who did the police force created by Stolypin in Saratov make an impression with?

A

Every young male under his control

44
Q

How did Stolypin make a good impression?

A

In the revolts in Saratov, he was able to keep firm control of governance in 1902

45
Q

What did Stolypin make in 1906?

A

Court martial

46
Q

How long did cases last in the court martial?

A

2 days

47
Q

What lasted 2 days?

A

Cases in the court martial

48
Q

Who was not allowed defence

A

Accused in the court martial

49
Q

Within how many hours were executions carried out in court martials?

A

24 hours

50
Q

In a terrorist attack in 1905, how many were killed and how many were executed?

A

233 killed

8 executed

51
Q

In a terrorist attack in 1908, how many were killed and how many were executed?

A

394 killed

825 executed

52
Q

What had the membership of revolutionary groups become in 1910?

A

Fell from 100,000 to 10,000

53
Q

What were the impacts of Kulaks?

A

Influence peasants to support the Tsar

Boost agricultural production

54
Q

What was transformed?

A

Russian communal pattern through removing Mir

55
Q

What happened to poorly utilised land?

A

Given to peasant land bank

56
Q

What could peasant using mirs do?

A

Turn their land into small holdings

57
Q

What was available from September 1906?

A

More crown and state land available for purchase

58
Q

When were more crown and state land available for purchase?

A

September 1906

59
Q

What was introduced in October 1906?

A

Peasants had equal rights in Local administration

60
Q

When did peasants had equal rights in Local administration?

A

October 1906

61
Q

What was introduced in November 1906?

A

Peasants had the right to leave commune and collective ownership was banned (Land owned by a group that benefit)

62
Q

What committee were set up?

A

Land organisation committees

63
Q

What percentage of land was still in strips?

A

90%

64
Q

How many migrated to Siberia?

A

3.5 million

65
Q

Where did 3.5 million peasants move to?

A

Siberia

66
Q

Why did 3.5 million move to Siberia?

A

Subsidies and encouragement of migration

67
Q

What was the impact of subsidies and encouragement of migration?

A

Migration of 3.5 million to Siberia

68
Q

How many applications were dealt with?

A

1.3 million to 5 million for poorer peasant land